Glossary of Pfizer Covid Vaccine Side Effects
The list of adverse side effects listed below are all afflictions and diseases that the Pfizer vaccines may cause, as per the Pfizer covid vaccine trial documentation the company was ordered to release under court order. Search the following list for names of illnesses or symptoms to find out if your health was seriously affected by the Pfizer injection.
For a good video breakdown of the Pfizer Data by Dr. John Cambell, click here.
1) 1p36 Deletion Syndrome
A congenital genetic disorder characterized by moderate to severe intellectual disability, delayed growth, hypotonia, seizures, limited speech ability, malformations, hearing and vision impairment, and distinct facial features. Most affected individuals do not speak, or speak only a few words. They may have temper tantrums, bite themselves, or exhibit other behavior problems.
2) Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria
The main features of D-2-HGA are delayed development, seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and abnormalities in the largest part of the brain (the cerebrum), which controls many important functions such as muscle movement, speech, vision, thinking, emotion, and memory. with symptoms including macrocephaly, cardiomyopathy, mental retardation, hypotonia, and cortical blindness, is an metabolic condition that is associated with progressive brain damage. The enzymatic defect causing this progressive neurometabolic disorder has not been found.
3) 5′ Nucleotidase Increased
Is associated with the canalicular and sinusoidal plasma membranes. Its function is undefined. 5′NT is also found in the intestine, brain, heart, blood vessels, and endocrine pancreas. 5′-Nucleotidase is present in the intestines, brain, heart, blood vessels, pancreas, and liver. In the liver, 5′-nucleotidase is primarily associated with canalicular and sinusoidal cell membranes.
4) Acoustic Neuritis
A condition that causes vertigo and dizziness. It results from inflammation of your vestibular nerve, a nerve in the ear that sends information to your brain about balance. When it’s inflamed, this information isn’t properly communicated, making you feel disoriented. It is a disorder that affects the nerve of the inner ear called the vestibulocochlear nerve. When this nerve becomes swollen (inflamed), it disrupts the way the information would normally be interpreted by the brain.
5) Acquired C1 Inhibitor Deficiency
Angioedema typically affects the skin or mucosal tissues of the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. The swelling is self-limited, although laryngeal involvement may cause fatal asphyxiation. This disease is also abbreviated in medical literature as C1INH-AAE. This form of angioedema is considered acquired due to its association with lymphatic malignancies, immune system disorders, or infections.
6) Acquired Epidermolysis Bullosa
Is an acquired, autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease. It is a rare autoimmune disorder that causes the skin to blister in response to minor injury. Common areas of blistering include the hands, feet, knees, elbows, and buttocks. It can also affect the mouth, nose, and eyes. Some affected people have other health problems such as Crohn’s disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, amyloidosis, or multiple myeloma.
7) Acute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus
Is a type of lupus, an autoimmune disease. Lupus causes widespread inflammation in your body. If you have ACLE, the inflammation affects your skin. Most people with ACLE develop a butterfly rash across their face. Current theories discuss a multifactorial relationship leading to the development of cutaneous lupus including genetic susceptibility, autoimmune induction, and immune system damage.
8) Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
Is a neurological, immune-mediated disorder in which widespread inflammation of the brain and spinal cord damages tissue known as white matter. It is an immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating condition that predominately affects the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. Neurological symptoms were the main presentation of COVID-19, which did not correlate with the severity of respiratory symptoms. The high incidence of ADEM with hemorrhage is striking. Brain inflammation is likely caused by an immune response to the disease rather than neurotropism.
9) Acute Encephalitis With Refractory Repetitive Partial Seizures
Acute onset of seizures or consciousness impairment; frequent and refractory partial seizures; the need for long-term anesthesia (more than 2 weeks) with intravenous barbiturates or benzodiazepines; a fever during the acute phase of illness; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealing mild pleocytosis or slight increase in protein; electroencephalogram (EEG) revealing slow background during the acute phase and multifocal spikes during the chronic phase; and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealing no specific abnormalities aside from occasional T2/fluid attenuated inversion recovery hyperintense signals of the mesial temporal lobe. (AERRPS) represents a peculiar form of encephalitis mainly affecting children. They usually present abruptly with seizure or impaired consciousness as well as high-grade fever following antecedent infection.
10) Acute Febrile Neutrophilic Dermatosis
Is an uncommon skin condition characterised by fever and inflamed or blistered skin and mucosal lesions. Neutrophilic dermatoses are autoinflammatory conditions often associated with systemic disease. It causes fever and a painful skin rash that appears mostly on the arms, face and neck. The most obvious signs of acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis are distinctive skin lesions that usually develop according to a specific pattern. Typically, a series of small red bumps appear suddenly on the back, neck, arms and face, often after a fever or upper respiratory infection.
11) Acute Flaccid Myelitis
Is a serious condition of the spinal cord. Symptoms include rapid onset of arm or leg weakness and decreased reflexes. Difficulty moving the eyes, speaking, or swallowing may also occur. Occasionally, numbness or pain may be present. Complications can include trouble breathing. Severe symptoms involve respiratory failure, due to the muscles involved in breathing becoming weak. It’s also possible to experience life-threatening body temperature changes and blood pressure instability. Acute flaccid myelitis might be caused by an infection with a type of virus known as an enterovirus.
12) Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis
(AHLE) is an inflammatory disease of the brain, most often affecting the cerebrum, less commonly the cerebellum, the brain stem, or the spinal cord. It is characterized by a brief but intense attack of inflammation in the brain and spinal cord that damages the myelin (the protective covering of the nerve fibers).The initial emergence of flu-like symptoms, however, supports the hypothesis of an autoimmune process on the basis of molecular mimicry promoted by mostly viral or bacterial pathogens.
13) Acute Haemorrhagic Oedema Of Infancy
Is characterized as a rare leuckocytoclastic vasculitis condition of the skin that typically affects children less than 2 years of age. AHEI typically manifests with fever, edema, and rosette-shaped, purpuric cutaneous lesions favoring the face, ears, and limbs. Children will have a prodromal illness, which is suddenly followed by the onset of red macules or urticarial lesions. Consequently, symmetrically distributed, large, tender, ecchymotic, purpuric lesions (described in a cockade pattern) appear with non‐pitting oedema. It mainly affects the face and extremities, sparing the trunk and mucous membranes. Some areas may even become necrotic. Visceral involvement is rare, whereas the kidneys and joints are spared.
14) Acute Kidney Injury
Is defined by a sudden loss of excretory kidney function. AKI is part of a range of conditions summarized as acute kidney diseases and disorders (AKD), in which slow deterioration of kidney function or persistent kidney dysfunction is associated with an irreversible loss of kidney cells and nephrons, which can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is beginning to change our view for AKI from a single organ failure syndrome to a syndrome where the kidney plays an active role in the progress of multi-organ dysfunction.
15) Acute Macular Outer Retinopathy
Is a rare condition that occurs most often in healthy, young women. Acute macular neuroretinopathy may present as an asymptomatic condition but is typically associated with transient, variable visual disturbances, such as scotomata, metamorphopsia and mild decrease in vision. Many associations have been identified with AMN and include: Fever (Flu, enteritis, upper respiratory tract infection, pharyngitis, bronchitis, ) Oral contraceptive pills Hypotension/shock due to several causes (post-partum, post-surgery, trauma etc) Intravenous contrast Intravenous ephedrine Caffeine Pro-thrombin associated antiphospholipid antibodies Pre-eclampsia Sinus infection.
16) Acute Motor Axonal Neuropathy
Pathologically, there is motor axonal degeneration with antibody-mediated attacks of motor nerves and nodes of Ranvier. It is a paralytic disorder of abrupt onset characterized pathologically by motor nerve fiber degeneration of variable severity and by sparing of sensory fibers. There is little demyelination or lymphocytic inflammation. The syndrome typically presents as a progressive flaccid symmetric paralysis with areflexia, often causing respiratory failure. Electromyographic studies and nerve conduction studies show normal motor conduction velocity and latency with decreased amplitude of compound muscle action potentials. Pathologically, it is a noninflammatory axonopathy without demyelination.
17) Acute Motor-Sensory Axonal Neuropathy
A rare and severe variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) that has a prolonged recovery course. GBS is often suspected due to ascending muscle weakness, sensation difficulties, respiratory compromise, and antecedent diarrhea. There is little demyelination or lymphocytic inflammation. It presents with progressive, symmetric muscle weakness and decreased deep tendon reflexes and accounts for 85–90% of cases. Demyelination occurs at the level of the nerve root, and sensory nerves are preserved.
18) Acute Myocardial Infarction
Is myocardial necrosis resulting from acute obstruction of a coronary artery. Symptoms include chest discomfort with or without dyspnea, nausea, and diaphoresis. Diagnosis is by ECG and the presence or absence of serologic markers. An MI results in irreversible damage to the heart muscle due to a lack of oxygen. An MI may lead to impairment in diastolic and systolic function and make the patient prone to arrhythmias.
19) Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Is a life-threatening condition where the lungs cannot provide the body’s vital organs with enough oxygen. Symptoms of ARDS can include: severe shortness of breath, rapid, shallow breathing, tiredness, drowsiness or confusion, feeling faint. It is a type of respiratory failure characterized by rapid onset of widespread inflammation in the lungs. Symptoms include shortness of breath (dyspnea), rapid breathing (tachypnea), and bluish skin coloration (cyanosis).
20) Acute Respiratory Failure
People with acute failure of the lungs and low oxygen levels may experience: restlessness, anxiety, sleepiness, loss of consciousness, rapid and shallow breathing, racing heart, irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias), profuse sweating. It is defined as the inability of the respiratory system to meet the oxygenation, ventilation, or metabolic requirements of the patient.
21) Addison’s Disease
Is a rare but serious adrenal gland disorder in which the body can’t produce enough of two critical hormones, cortisol and aldosterone. Patients with Addison’s will need hormone replacement therapy for life. Symptoms generally come on slowly and insidiously and may include abdominal pain and gastrointestinal abnormalities, weakness, and weight loss. Darkening of the skinin certain areas may also occur. Under certain circumstances, anadrenal crisis may occur with low blood pressure, vomiting, lower back pain, andloss of consciousness. Mood changesmay also occur. Rapid onset of symptoms indicates acute adrenal failure which is a serious and emergent condition. An adrenal crisis can be triggered by stress, such as from an injury, surgery, or infection.
22) Administration Site Thrombosis
A joint consensus document from the European Society of Cardiology working groups of aorta and peripheral vascular diseases and pulmonary circulation and right ventricular function.
23) Administration Site Vasculitis
The vasculitides are defined by the presence of leukocytes in the vessel wall with reactive damage to mural structures. In general, affected vessels vary in size, type, and location in association with the specific vasculitic disorder. These conditions are often serious and sometimes fatal diseases that require prompt recognition and therapy. Systemic inflammatory response resulting from release of chemical mediators from inflamed blood vessels gives rise to various non‐specific systemic manifestations. They include fever, night sweats, malaise, weight loss, arthralgia, myalgia and laboratory features such as normocytic and normochromic anaemia, leucocytosis, thrombocytosis, and raised erthyrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C reactive protein (CRP). Some patients, especially early in the course of their illness, could present with isolated systemic manifestations posing a diagnostic challenge.
24) Adrenal Thrombosis
Refers to the occlusion of the main central adrenal vein with or without extension to the capsular veins, resulting in hemorrhage and coagulative necrosis of the adrenal glands. The clinical presentation is not specific and patients may present with severe flank pain, subcostal region guarding, in the case of bilateral adrenal venous infarction, patients may present with hypotension and shock due to acute adrenal insufficiency.
25) Adverse Event Following Immunisation
Is defined in The Australian Immunisation Handbook as “any untoward medical occurrence that follows immunisation. Most reactions, such as fever, pain or redness at the site of injection, commonly occur after vaccination with some vaccines. There reactions are mild, short lived and should be expected. Adverse reactions, also known as side effects, are considered to be caused by a vaccine. Usually, vaccine side effects are identified during clinical trials. The intensity of these reactions may range from mild to moderate to severe. They often resolve on their own, and may or may not require medical intervention. Depending on severity, an adverse reaction may also be considered a serious adverse event.
Is the loss of taste functions of the tongue, particularly the inability to detect sweetness, sourness, bitterness, saltiness, and umami (meaning “pleasant/savory taste”). It is sometimes confused with anosmia – a loss of the sense of smell. True ageusia is relatively rare compared to hypogeusia – a partial loss of taste – and dysgeusia – a distortion or alteration of taste.
A serious condition that occurs when there is an extremely low number of granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the blood. Agranulocytosis may be asymptomatic, or may clinically present with sudden fever, rigors and sore throat. Infection of any organ may be rapidly progressive (e.g., pneumonia, urinary tract infection). Sepsis may also progress rapidly.
28) Air Embolism
Also known as a gas embolism, is a blood vessel blockage caused by one or more bubbles of air or other gas in the circulatory system. Agranulocytosis itself doesn’t have symptoms. People with the disorder have symptoms of infection. Signs of agranulocytosis may appear suddenly or gradually. They include Fever and chills. Faster heart rate and breathing. Sudden low blood pressure (hypotension), which can make you feel lightheaded or weak. Muscle weakness and fatigue. Sore mouth and throat and bleeding, inflamed gums. Ulcers (sores) in the mouth and throat that make it difficult to swallow.
29) Alanine Aminotransferase Abnormal
If liver damage is the cause of elevated liver enzymes, you may have symptoms such as: Abdominal (stomach) pain. Dark urine (pee). Fatigue (feeling tired). Itching. Jaundice (yellowing of your skin or eyes). Light-colored stools (poop). Loss of appetite. Nausea and vomiting. High levels of ALT may indicate liver damage from hepatitis, infection, cirrhosis, liver cancer, or other liver diseases.
30) Alanine Aminotransferase Increased
Is an enzyme your body needs to break down food into energy. You may feel Nausea and vomiting. Jaundice. Abdominal pain. Loss of appetite. Unusual itching. Tiredness. ALT levels increase in response to liver diseases, such as: Fatty liver or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Fatty liver affects approximately 35% of the US population and often occurs alongside diabetes and obesity. Viral hepatitis. Usually results in extremely high ALT levels. Autoimmune hepatitis. Liver cancer.
31) Alcoholic Seizure
Generally, seizures related to alcohol are experienced during the period in which the person is experiencing withdrawal from alcohol. When a person is addicted to alcohol and it’s removed from their system, they will experience many unpleasant symptoms. Some of these symptoms are: Anxiety. Confusion Headache. High blood pressure. Increased heart rate. Insomnia. Irritability. Nausea and vomiting. Nightmares. Tremors.
33) Allergic Oedema
Angioedema is swelling underneath the skin. It’s usually a reaction to a trigger, such as a medicine or something you’re allergic to. It is not normally serious, but it can be a recurring problem for some people and can very occasionally be life-threatening if it affects breathing. The swelling feels like large, thick, firm welts and can cause redness, pain, or warmth in the swollen areas. If it’s in your lower intestine, it can bring stomach pain. Angioedema can be dangerous if swelling is in your throat or tongue. That can make it hard to breathe. Symptoms can range in severity, and they are rarely life-threatening.
34) Alloimmune Hepatitis
Is liver inflammation that occurs when your body’s immune system turns against liver cells. Autoimmune hepatitis likely results from a combination of autoimmunity, environmental triggers, and a
35) Alopecia Areata
Also known as spot baldness, is a condition in which hair is lost from some or all areas of the body. Often, it results in a few bald spots on the scalp, each about the size of a coin. The underlying skin is unscarred and looks superficially normal. Although these patches can take many shapes, they are usually round or oval. In alopecia areata, the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the hair follicles for reasons that are not clear.
36) Alpers Disease
Is a progressive, neurodevelopmental, mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome characterized by three co-occurring clinical symptoms: psychomotor regression (dementia); seizures; and liver disease. You may feel Anxiety and depression. Brain disease (encephalopathy). Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Lack of growth (failure to thrive). Migraine headaches with hallucinations. Muscle stiffness (spasticity). Muscle twitching. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome is caused by mutations in the POLG gene. This gene provides instructions for making one part, the alpha subunit, of a protein called polymerase gamma (pol γ).
37) Alveolar Proteinosis
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease in which a type of protein builds up in the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs, making breathing difficult. Pulmonary means related to the lungs. Shortness of breath, also called dyspnea. Chest pain or tightness. Fever. Weight loss. Cough (sometimes, but not always). Low levels of oxygen in the blood. Nail clubbing (abnormal growth of toenails or fingernails).
38) Ammonia Abnormal
Ammonia is a nitrogen waste compound that is normally excreted in the urine. An elevated blood ammonia level is an excessive accumulation of ammonia in the blood. An elevated blood ammonia level occurs when the kidneys or liver are not working properly, allowing waste to remain in the bloodstream. Symptoms include irritability, headache, vomiting, ataxia, and gait abnormalities in the milder cases. Seizures, encephalopathy, coma, and even death can occur in cases with ammonia levels greater than 200 micromol/L.
39) Ammonia Increased
High ammonia levels in the blood can lead to serious health problems, including brain damage, coma, and even death. High ammonia levels in the blood are most often caused by liver disease. Other causes include kidney failure and genetic disorders.
40) Amniotic Cavity Infection
Chorioamnionitis is most often caused by bacteria commonly found in the vagina. It happens more often when the bag of waters (amniotic sac) is broken for a long time before birth. This lets bacteria in the vagina move up into the uterus. Infection increases risk of obstetric complications and problems in the fetus and neonate. Symptoms include fever, uterine tenderness, foul-smelling amniotic fluid, purulent cervical discharge, and maternal or fetal tachycardia.
Is a surgical procedure for the treatment of epilepsy. It consists of the removal of the hippocampus, which has a role in memory, spatial awareness, and navigation, and the amygdalae, which have a role in the processing and memory of emotional reactions, both structures forming part of the limbic system of the brain. The hippocampus, located in the medial temporal lobe and connected with the amygdala that controls emotional memory recalling and regulation (Schumacher et al., 2018); it has increased the functional connectivity with anterior cingulate or amygdala during emotional regulation and recalling of positive memoryIn short, the hippocampus orchestrates both the recording and the storage of memories, and without it, this “memory consolidation” cannot occur.
42) Amyloid Arthropathy
Articular and periarticular consequences of amyloidosis often mimic rheumatoid arthritis (RA), polymyalgia rheumatica, autoinflammatory syndromes, seronegative spondyloarthritis, and plasma cell dyscrasias. Amyloid arthropathy is classically seen in the shoulders, knees, wrists, and elbows, and this may be explained by that fact that these are sites that are commonly aspirated. Amyloid arthropathy can mimic classic RA but usually lacks the intense distal synovitis and can affect the hips, knees, and shoulders more than peripheral joints.
Is the name for a group of rare, serious conditions caused by a build-up of an abnormal protein called amyloid in organs and tissues throughout the body. The build-up of amyloid proteins (deposits) can make it difficult for the organs and tissues to work properly. Deposition into articular and periarticular spaces can result in amyloid arthropathy and can mimic rheumatic conditions such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis.
44) Amyloidosis Senile
Cardiac amyloidosis is a fatal disease whose prognosis and treatment rely on identification of the amyloid type. In our aging population transthyretin amyloidosis (
45) Anaphylactic Reaction
Anaphylaxis, often known as anaphylactic shock, is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death. It typically causes more than one of the following: an itchy rash, throat or tongue swelling, shortness of breath, vomiting, lightheadedness and low blood pressure. Anaphylaxis causes the immune system to release a flood of chemicals that can cause you to go into shock — blood pressure drops suddenly and the airways narrow, blocking breathing. Signs and symptoms include a rapid, weak pulse; a skin rash; and nausea and vomiting.
46) Anaphylactic Shock
Is a rare but severe allergic reaction that can be deadly if you don’t treat it right away. The symptoms include: feeling lightheaded or faint. breathing difficulties – such as fast, shallow breathing. wheezing. a fast heartbeat. clammy skin. confusion and anxiety. collapsing or losing consciousness.
47) Anaphylactic Transfusion Reaction
Reactions usually begin within 1 to 45 minutes after the start of the transfusion. Patients present with a sudden onset of severe hypotension, cough, bronchospasm (respiratory distress and wheezing), laryngospasm, angioedema, urticaria, nausea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhoea, shock and loss of consciousness. The increased incidence of reactions to platelets compared with fresh frozen plasma suggests that a platelet-related factor may be responsible for many of the reactions. The possible role of platelet microparticles or activated platelet membranes, which carry a negative charge similar to ionic radiocontrast media, the major cause of iatrogenic anaphylactic reactions in the hospital, is explored.
48) Anaphylactoid Syndrome Of Pregnancy
(ASP) is a widespread, proinflammatory, anaphylactic-like reaction that can occur when amniotic fluid enters the maternal blood circulation. The first symptoms to occur are usually dyspnea and cyanosis, quickly followed by acute respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory arrest. The first symptoms to occur are usually dyspnea and cyanosis, quickly followed by acute respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory arrest
Is swelling underneath the skin. It’s usually a reaction to a trigger, such as a medicine or something you’re allergic to. It is not normally serious, but it can be a recurring problem for some people and can very occasionally be life-threatening if it affects breathing. The swelling feels like large, thick, firm welts and can cause redness, pain, or warmth in the swollen areas. If it’s in your lower intestine, it can bring stomach pain. Angioedema can be dangerous if swelling is in your throat or tongue. That can make it hard to breathe.
50) Angiopathic Neuropathy
Any syndrome in which muscle weakness, paresthesias, impaired reflexes, and autonomic symptoms in the hands and feet are common. This syndrome occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus, renal or hepatic failure, alcoholism, or in those who take certain medications such as phenytoin and isoniazid.
51) Ankylosing Spondylitis
Is aninflammatory disease that, over time, can cause some of the bones in the spine (vertebrae) to fuse. This fusing makes the spine less flexible and can result in a hunched posture. If ribs are affected, it can be difficult to breathe deeply. People with Ankylosing Spondylitis often describe an ongoing, dull pain that feels like it’s coming from deep within their lower back or buttocks, along with morning stiffness. It is not unusual for symptoms to worsen, get better or stop completely at regular intervals.
Total lack of sense of smell. Congenital anosmia is a condition in which people are born with a lifelong inability to smell. It may occur as an isolated abnormality (no additional symptoms) or be associated with a specific genetic disorder (such as Kallmann syndrome or congenital insensitivity to pain).
53) Anti-actin Antibody Positive
Background Anti-actin antibodies (AAA) are well-described as the major component of smooth muscle autoantibodies (microfilament antibodies). They are specially detected in patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and celiac disease (CD). Anti-actin antibodies (AAA) are found at increased frequency in certain autoimmune diseases and may be of some diagnostic value. In coeliac disease anti-actin antibodies correlated with the level of intestinal damage.
54) Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody Positive
Anti-AQP4 antibody positive optic neuritis is a severe optic neuritis with poor visual outcome. Anti-AQP4 antibody testing should be conducted from the time of onset attack of optic neuritis. Conducting appropriate acute-phase treatment and continuous transition from acute therapy to maintenance therapy are important. Aquaporin-4 is the most common aquaporin in the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve. It is highly expressed in the human body primarily at the end-feet of astrocytes.
55) Anti-basal Ganglia Antibody Positive
The spectrum of post-streptococcal brain disorders includes chorea, tics, and dystonia. The proposed mediators of disease are anti-basal ganglia (neuronal) antibodies (ABGA).
56) Anti-cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibody Positive
A positive result indicates that CCP antibodies were detected in the blood sample. The results of CCP antibody testing are used in combination with the results of a physical exam, a rheumatoid factor (RF) test, and other test results to determine whether a patient has rheumatoid arthritis. The normal level of anti-CCP is less than 20 Units. (At Hospital for Special Surgery, anti-CCP is reported in Units. Some labs report this same result using a different measurement notation, that is, as less than 20 EU/ml.) A level above 20 suggests the possibility of RA.
57) Anti-epithelial Antibody Positive
Anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibodies and the detection of circulating normal-like breast tumor cells. Antibodies that specifically recognize normal-like breast tumor cells but not cells of hematopoietic origin are needed.
58) Anti-erythrocyte Antibody Positive
An RBC (red blood cell) antibody screen is a blood test that looks for antibodies that target red blood cells. Red blood cell antibodies may cause harm to you after a transfusion or, if you are pregnant, to your baby. An RBC antibody screen can find these antibodies before they cause health problems.
59) Anti-exosome complex Antibody Positive
The exosome complex (or PM/Scl complex, often just called the exosome) is a multi-protein intracellular complex capable of degrading various types of RNA (ribonucleic acid) molecules. Exosome complexes are found in both eukaryotic cells and archaea, while in bacteria a simpler complex called the degradosome carries out similar functions. Exosomes have generated significant interest in the last few decades owing to their important roles in a diverse range of biological pathways.
60) Anti-GAD Antibody Negative
If the test shows GAD antibodies are present, this indicates that the patient has type 1 diabetes. If no GAD antibodies are present, however, the test cannot be conclusive in saying that the patient does not have type 1 diabetes. The main neurological syndromes associated with high levels of antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) include stiff-person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia and temporal lobe epilepsy.
61) Anti-GAD Antibody Positive
Appropriate diagnosis of anti-GAD antibodies in case 2 occurred after a period of time on Mestinon for suspected MG, further demonstrating the illusiveness of this diagnosis. Symptomatic treatment of these patients includes immunotherapies such as plasmapheresis, IVIG, rituximab, and steroids.
62) Anti-ganglioside Antibody Positive
Anti-ganglioside antibodies are reported as positive in 36% of patients with GBS and became positive early in the disease process. Antiganglioside antibodies that react to self-gangliosides are found in autoimmune neuropathies. These antibodies were first found to react with cerebellar cells. These antibodies show highest association with certain forms of Guillain–Barré syndrome. Antibodies to gangliosides are associated with a number of of autoimmune peripheral neuropathies.
63) Antigliadin Antibody Positive
Antigliadin antibodies (AGA) show good sensitivity but low specificity for celiac disease and can also be found in healthy individuals. However, data suggest that AGA positivity might be related to distinct disease entities such as allergy and gluten ataxia. A gliadin antibodies test is used to help doctors diagnose celiac disease. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder in which the body’s immune system mistakenly thinks that gluten — a protein in wheat, barley, rye, and oats — is a foreign invader.
64) Anti-glomerular Aasement Membrane Antibody Positive
Anti–glomerular basement membrane antibody (anti-GBM) disease, or Goodpasture syndrome, is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of autoantibodies directed against the NC1-domain of the alpha-3 chain of basement membrane collagen type IV. This test is used to diagnose certain kidney diseases, such as Goodpasture syndrome and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. Definition. Anti-glomerular basement membrane diseases (anti-GBM diseases) is a rare disorder that can involve quickly worsening kidney failure and lung disease. Some forms of the disease involve just the lung or the kidney. Anti-GBM disease used to be known as Goodpasture syndrome.
65) Anti-glomerular Basement Membrane Disease
Is a rare disorder that can involve quickly worsening kidney failure and lung disease. Some forms of the disease involve just the lung or the kidney. Anti-GBM disease used to be known as Goodpasture syndrome. It is an archetypic autoimmune disease, caused by the development of directly pathogenic autoantibodies targeting a well characterized autoantigen expressed in the basement membranes of these organs, although the inciting events that induce the autoimmune response are not fully understood. The recent confirmation of spatial and temporal clustering of cases suggests that environmental factors, including infection, may trigger disease in genetically susceptible individuals.
66) Anti-glycyl-tRNA Synthetase Antibody Positive
Is occasionally positive in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). We aimed to define the clinical, radiological and pathological features of patients with anti-EJ antibody-positive ILD (EJ-ILD).
67) Anti-HLA Antibody Test Positive
A positive test means HLA-B27 is present. It suggests a greater-than-average risk for developing or having certain autoimmune disorders. An autoimmune disorder is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue.
68) Anti-IA2 Antibody Positive
These antibodies can be used to predict the onset of diabetes mellitus. In the assessment of first degree relatives for autoimmune diabetes, positive results in more than one of the marker antibodies (GAD, Islet cell, IA2 or insulin) can be associated with the onset of autoimmune diabetes.
69) Anti-insulin Antibody Increased
If the test shows a high level of IgE antibody against insulin, your body has developed an allergic response to the insulin. This could put you at risk for skin reactions where you inject insulin. You can also develop more severe reactions that affect your blood pressure or breathing. Anti-insulin antibodies have been described in two contexts: in insulin-naive individuals (so-called ‘insulin autoimmune syndrome’) and in patients with insulin-treated diabetes, in whom antibodies are rarely of clinical significance.
70) Anti-insulin Antibody Positive
The anti-insulin antibody test checks to see if your body has produced antibodies against insulin. Antibodies are proteins the body produces to protect itself when it detects anything “foreign,” such as a virus or transplanted organ.This anti insulin bodies test diagnosis the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies in the human body.
71) Anti-insulin Receptor Antibody Increased
Anti-insulin receptor antibodies can cause diabetes by binding to the insulin receptor, thereby blocking the binding of insulin to its receptor in target tissues. However, in some cases, these antibodies can act as an insulin agonist after binding to the receptor and thereby cause hypoglycaemia. Type B insulin resistance syndrome is characterized by the presence of a circulating anti-insulin receptor antibody which inhibits insulin action. The syndrome is usually associated with autoimmune diseases, acanthosis nigricans and hyperinsulinemia.
72) Anti-insulin Receptor Antibody Positive
If the test shows a high level of IgE antibody against insulin, your body has developed an allergic response to the insulin. This could put you at risk for skin reactions where you inject insulin. You can also develop more severe reactions that affect your blood pressure or breathing.
73) Anti-interferon Antibody Negative
The association between the presence of anti-interferon-γ autoantibodies and the onset of immunodeficiency with intracellular infections has been clearly established. No standard regimen to control the production of these pathogenic autoantibodies, apart from antimicrobial therapy to eliminate infections, contributes to the medical burden of this syndrome, which sometimes has a fatal outcome. In this review, we summarize the findings on anti-interferon-γ autoantibodies to facilitate further research and to provide guidance for treatment strategies.
74) Anti-interferon Antibody Positive
Confirmed that patients who tested positive for anti-IFN-γ autoantibody usually have more frequently exhibited disseminated systemic infections with severe pleural effusion, have stronger inflammatory responses, are more likely to be infected by other intracellular pathogen, and have worse disease outcomes despite aggressive antimicrobial therapy.
75) Anti-islet Cell Antibody Positive
Anti-islet cell antibodies are present in 90% of patients with Type I insulin-dependant/juvenile diabetes particularly around the time of diagnosis. They tend to disappear later unless there is multi-endocrine disorder. They are also found less commonly in non-diabetic relatives. They can serve as early markers to identify anti-islet cell autoimmunity before the onset of clinical symptoms.
76) Antimitochondrial Antibody Positive
A positive AMA means that there are detectable levels of antibodies in the bloodstream. Although a positive AMA test is most often associated with PBC, it can also be positive in autoimmune hepatitis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and graft-versus-host disease.
77) Anti-muscle Specific Kinase Antibody Positive
Is a surface membrane enzyme that is essential in aggregating Acetylcholine receptor during the development of the neuromuscular junction. If you have a positive test result for anti-MuSK antibodies and symptoms of MG, then it is likely that you have autoimmune muscle-specific kinase myasthenia gravis.
78) Anti-myelin-associated Glycoprotein Antibodies Positive
The diagnosis of Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein (MAG) neuropathy is based on the presence of elevated titers of IgM anti-MAG antibodies, which are typically associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy, and a slowly progressive, distal demyelinating phenotype. The condition, however, can be under or over diagnosed in patients with mildly elevated antibody titers, absent monoclonal gammopathy, or an atypical presentation. Anti-myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) neuropathy is a chronic disorder in which IgM antibodies react with Schwann cell glycoproteins, including MAG and peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22). Nerve conduction studies show features of axon loss and predominantly distal slowing consistent with demyelination.
79) Anti-myelin-associated Glycoprotein Associated Polyneuropathy
Is a chronic disorder in which IgM antibodies react with Schwann cell glycoproteins, including MAG and peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22). Nerve conduction studies show features of axon loss and predominantly distal slowing consistent with demyelination.
80) Antimyocardial Antibody Positive
This test measures how many antimyocardial antibodies (AMAs) are in your blood. Antimyocardial antibodies are found in the majority of patients who have received a coronary artery bypass. The clinical significance of this finding is uncertain. Antimyocardial antibodies may also be found in patients suffering from acute rheumatic fever.
81) Anti-neuronal Antibody Positive
Antibodies against antigens are found in paraneoplastic neurological syndrome and autoimmune encephalitis patients. Antibodies against antigens found in the central nervous system have been evidenced in several neurological diseases. The most well-known are associated with paraneoplastic neurological diseases (Anti-Hu, Yo, Ri amphiphysin, Tr, CV2 and Ta antibodies).
82) Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody Increased
Higher antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (C-ANCA) titers are associated with increased overall healthcare use in patients with sinonasal manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA).
83) Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody Positive
(ANCA) are autoantibodies directed against antigens found in the cytoplasmic granules of neutrophils and monocytes. ANCA testing is usually performed to help diagnose or exclude Wegener’s granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis. If your results were positive, it may mean you have autoimmune vasculitis. It can also show if cANCAs or pANCAs were found. This can help determine which type of vasculitis you have. No matter which type of antibodies were found, you may need an additional test, known as biopsy, to confirm the diagnosis.
84) Anti-neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody Positive Vasculitis
Associated vasculitis (AAV) is a complex systemic autoimmune disease presenting with the inflammation of small and medium vessels that results in vascular destruction and tissue necrosis. Symptoms of vasculitis include fatigue, muscle pain, fever, cough, hemoptysis, abdominal pain, blood in urine or weakness, and numbness in hands or feet. Treatment for vasculitis includes using steroids along with other medication the suppress the immune system, such as cyclophosphamide or rituximab.
85) Anti-NMDA Antibody Positive
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a type of brain inflammation caused by antibodies. Early symptoms may include fever, headache, and feeling tired. This is then typically followed by psychosis which presents with false beliefs (delusions) and seeing or hearing things that others do not see or hear (hallucinations). Anti-NMDAR IgG antibody detected in serum confirms the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Abdominal imaging (ultrasound or MRI) should also be performed due to strong association with ovarian neoplasms. Testicular ultrasound should replace abdominal ultrasound in men.
86) Antinuclear Antibody Increased
ANA titers can also increase with age among healthy people, so it’s important to talk to your doctor about your symptoms and what your result means to you. If your primary doctor ordered the test, they may recommend a referral to a rheumatologist — an autoimmune disease specialist — to review any abnormal ANA results.
87) Antinuclear Antibody Positive
An antinuclear antibody test checks to see if you have an autoimmune disorder, a condition where the immune system attacks healthy cells. In contrast, antinuclear antibodies often attack your body’s own tissues — specifically targeting each cell’s nucleus. In most cases, a positive ANA test indicates that your immune system has launched a misdirected attack on your own tissue — in other words, an autoimmune reaction.
88) Antiphospholipid Antibodies Positive
High levels of this antibody may mean you have a higher risk for blood clots. Your healthcare provider can’t predict when a clot may happen. You may need a second test in about 12 weeks to confirm the results. A positive result doesn’t mean you need treatment. A positive result means that cardiolipin antibody was detected in the blood. As mentioned earlier, the presence of cardiolipin antibodies may indicate several diseases, such as: Syphilis. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
89) Antiphospholipid Syndrome
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), sometimes known as Hughes syndrome, is a disorder of the immune system that causes an increased risk of blood clots. This means people with APS are at greater risk of developing conditions such as: deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a blood clot that usually develops in the leg. Antiphospholipid syndrome can be fatal. Death may occur as a result of dangerous blood clots in the heart, lungs or brain that are caused by antiphospholipid syndrome.
90) Anti-platelet Antibody Positive
Antiplatelet antibody (APA) testing is considered an adjunct laboratory test in the diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Anti-platelet antibodies may appear in the blood due to any of the following: For unknown reasons (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, or ITP ) Side effect of certain drugs such as gold, heparin, quinidine, and quinine.
91) Anti-prothrombin Antibody Positive
High levels of this antibody may mean you have a higher risk for blood clots. Your healthcare provider can’t predict when a clot may happen. You may need a second test in about 12 weeks to confirm the results. A positive result doesn’t mean you need treatment. Antiprothrombin antibodies, like anti–β2-glycoprotein I antibodies, reduce the kd of prothrombin to an artificial anionic phospholipid surface 2.5 to 5.0 times (from 822 ± 150 nmol/L to 184 to 341 nmol/L).
92) Antiribosomal P Antibody Positive
Anti-ribosomal P (anti-Rib-P) antibody is a specific serological marker for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and routinely tested by targeting the common epitope of three ribosomal proteins of P0, P1 and P2. Anti-ribosomal P (anti-Rib-P) antibody is a specific serological marker for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and routinely tested by targeting the common epitope of three ribosomal proteins of P0, P1 and P2.
93) Anti-RNA Polymerase III Antibody Positive
A positive result for RNA polymerase III antibody may support a diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) in the appropriate clinical context (see Cautions). Anti-RNA polymerase III autoantibody in patients with SSc is associated with the diffuse cutaneous form of disease and an increased risk of sclerodermal renal crisis.
94) Anti-saccharomyces Cerevisiae Antibody Test Positive
A positive ASCA result is not diagnostic of CD, UC, or of an IBD, but it does make it more likely that a person with symptoms has an IBD. Results of ASCA testing are often interpreted in conjunction with the results of pANCA testing: If ASCA is positive and pANCA is negative, then it is likely that the person has CD.
95) Anti-sperm Antibody Positive
The antibodies can damage or kill sperm. If a high number of sperm antibodies come into contact with sperm, it may be hard for the sperm to fertilize an egg. This is called immunologic infertility. A person’s immune system can make antibodies that kill their own sperm. Antisperm antibodies (ASA) can form when the immune system is exposed to large quantities of sperm through a breach of the blood-testes barrier, for example, following trauma, torsion, biopsy, and vasectomy (the latter being the most common cause seen in the authors’ practices).
96) Anti-SRP Antibody Positive
Anti-signal recognition particle (anti-SRP) autoantibodies are myositis-specific antibodies found in 4-6% of patients with IIMs [4,5]. These antibodies are directed against SRP, a ribonuclear protein particle that regulates protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane during protein synthesis. Anti-SRP antibody related necrotizing myositis is a rapidly progressive, severe, proximal muscle weakness with atrophy. Anti-SRP (signal recognition particle) antibody (Ab) related myositis is a group of necrotizing myositis with rapidly progressive, severe, proximal muscle weakness followed by atrophy of affected muscles and extremely high creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels at presentation.
97) Antisynthetase Syndrome
Is an autoimmune condition, characterized by antibodies directed against an aminoacycl transfer RNA synthetase along with clinical features that can include interstitial lung disease, myositis, Raynaud’s phenomenon, and arthritis. In the presence of suspicious symptoms a number of test are helpful in the diagnosis: Muscle enzymes are often elevated, i.e. creatine kinase Anti-Jo-1 antibody testing Electromyography Muscle biopsy Pulmonary function testing Lung biopsy Imaging such as High Resolution computed tomography. In certain situations, testing of other antibodies, specific imaging (MRI, thoracic high resolution computed tomography), and swallowing evaluation may be needed.Muscle enzymes are nAnti-Jog. Lung biopsy. Imaging such as High Resolution compu tomography.
98) Anti-thyroid Antibody Positive
The presence of TPO antibodies in your blood suggests that the cause of thyroid disease is an autoimmune disorder, such as Hashimoto’s disease or Graves’ disease. In autoimmune disorders, your immune system makes antibodies that mistakenly attack normal tissue. It occurs when your body makes antibodies that attack the cells in your thyroid. Symptoms may include an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter), tiredness, weight gain, and muscle weakness. You don’t need treatment if your thyroid hormone levels are normal.
99) Anti-transglutaminase Antibody Increased
Are autoantibodies against the transglutaminase protein. Antibodies serve an important role in the immune system by detecting cells and substances that the rest of the immune system then eliminates. People with celiac disease often make antibodies that attack this enzyme. These are called anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies. A blood test that shows higher levels of anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies can help your healthcare provider figure out if you have celiac disease.
100) Anti-VGCC Antibody Positive
Describe the significance of voltage gated calcium channel antibody (VGCC-Ab) in evaluating neurological disorders. Most patients with VGCC-antibody-positivity have small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune disease of the presynaptic part of the neuromuscular junction. Its classical clinical triad is proximal muscle weakness, areflexia and autonomic dysfunction.
101) Anti-VGKC Antibody Positive
Detection of antibodies to voltage gated potassium channels (VGKC) Typical Presentation: Acute or subacute onset symptoms of limbic encephalitis including confusion/dementia, depression/anxiety and/or seizures or hallucinations, peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, acquired neuromyotonia, autonomic dysfunction. Background Voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex antibodies can be associated with a range of immunotherapy-responsive clinical presentations including limbic encephalitis, Morvan’s syndrome and acquired neuromyotonia. However, there are patients with positive levels in whom the significance is uncertain.
102) Anti-vimentin Antibody Positive
The anti–Vimentin, VIM 3B4 antibody is an excellent marker for mesenchymal cells and mesenchyme-derived tumors (sarcoma, lymphoma, melanoma). Vimentin, a filamental antigen, is commonly targeted by in situ activated B-cells in TII.
103) Antiviral Prophylaxis
Antiviral prophylaxis involved the administration of antiviral agents such as acyclcovir, gancylcovir, and valacyclovir to patients at risk for certain viral infections or reactivation of viral infection. A variety of antiviral agents have been studied.
104) Anti-zinc Transporter 8 Antibody Positive
Zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) is an islet β-cell secretory granule membrane protein recently identified as an autoantibody antigen in type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and role of antibodies to ZnT8 (ZnT8As) in adult-onset diabetes. ZnT8As are detectable in a proportion of patients with adult-onset autoimmune diabetes and seem to be a valuable marker to differentiate clinical phenotypes.
105) Aortic Embolus
A common source for an embolus is from areas of hardening (atherosclerosis) in the aorta and other large blood vessels. These clots can break loose and flow down to the legs and feet.Appearances consistent with embolic disease straddling the aortic bifurcation with further propagation of clot causing acute occlusion of the left below knee popliteal artery.
106) Aortic Thrombosis
1, 2 Thoracic aortic mural thrombus (TAMT), characterized by sessile or pedunculated aortic thrombi that develop in the absence of pre-existing aortic disease, is an uncommon pathologic process with potentially devastating complications. Arterial thrombosismay be caused by a hardening of the arteries, called arteriosclerosis. This happens when fatty or calcium deposits cause artery walls to thicken. This can lead to a buildup of fatty material (called plaque) in the artery walls. This plaque can suddenly burst (rupture), followed by a blood clot.
Aortitis is a form of vasculitis—a family of rare disorders characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels, which can restrict blood flow and damage vital organs and tissues. Aortitis refers to inflammation of the aorta, which carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. There is a wide range of symptoms that are dependent on the location of the aortic inflammation or associated disorder. A few symptoms recognized in patients are fever, chills, muscle pains, and malaise (general discomfort). In addition, hypertension (high blood pressure) may occur. Hypertension happens when the renal artery narrows and elasticity of the aorta and branches decrease. Aortitis can also be caused by Salmonella infection.
108) Aplasia Pure Red Cell
Acquired Pure Red Cell Aplasia is a rare bone marrow disorder characterized by an isolated decline of red blood cells (erythrocytes) produced by the bone marrow. Affected individuals may experience fatigue, lethargy, and/or abnormal paleness of the skin (pallor). Production of red blood cells that carry oxygen to the body is affected, causing anemia. Signs and symptoms may include: Pale appearance. Rapid heart rate. Fatigue.
110) Application Site Thrombosis
Thrombosis occurs when a blood clot forms either in a vein or an artery. The clot is known as a thrombus. Normally, blood clots only form when you cut yourself and start to bleed. At the site of the cut, the blood gets thicker and forms a clot to ‘plug up’ the wound so it stops bleeding.
111) Application Site Vasculitis
Vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessels, often with ischemia, necrosis, and organ inflammation. Vasculitis can affect any blood vessel—arteries, arterioles, veins, venules, or capillaries. Clinical manifestations of specific vasculitic disorders are diverse and depend on the size and location of the involved vessels, the extent of the organ involvement, and the degree and pattern of extravascular inflammation.
Things that can cause an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia) include: Current heart attack or scarring from a previous heart attack. Blocked arteries in the heart (coronary artery disease) Changes to the heart’s structure, such as from cardiomyopathy. Symptoms, Diagnosis and Monitoring of Arrhythmia: Fatigue or weakness. Dizziness or lightheadedness. Fainting or near-fainting spells. Rapid heartbeat or pounding in the chest. Shortness of breath and anxiety. Chest pain or pressure. In extreme cases, collapse and sudden cardiac arrest.
113) Arterial Bypass Occlusion
Artery occlusion and bypass is a two-part procedure combining open microsurgery and endovascular coiling. The purpose of this procedure is to coil the entire diseased portion of the blood vessel and then bypass the blood flow to the specific location in the brain.
114) Arterial Thrombosis
Is a blood clot in an artery, which can be very serious because it can stop blood reaching important organs. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body and the heart muscle. Arterial thrombosis occurs when a blood clot forms in an artery. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to an organ. Some symptoms of thrombosis may include: pain in one leg, a swollen leg or arm, chest pain, numbness on one side of the body, weakness on one side of the body, mental changes.
115) Arterial Bypass Thrombosis
Is a blood clot in an artery, which can be very serious because it can stop blood reaching important organs. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body and the heart muscle. Symptoms including: pain in one leg; a swollen leg or arm; chest pain; numbness on one side of the body; weakness on one side of the body; mental changes.
116) Arteriovenous Fistula Thrombosis
A fistula can thrombose either early or late after its creation. Early thrombosis of a fistula is most often due to an inflow problem (juxta-anastomosis stenosis or accessory vein) while late thrombosis tends to be due to an outflow stenosis. Arteriovenous fistula signs and symptoms may include: Purplish, bulging veins that you can see through your skin, similar to varicose veins. Swelling in the arms or legs. Decreased blood pressure. Fatigue. Heart failure. A significant arteriovenous fistula in your lungs (pulmonary arteriovenous fistula) is a serious condition and can cause: A bluish tinge to the skin. Clubbing of fingers (the fingertips spread out and become rounder than normal). Coughing up blood. An arteriovenous fistula in your gastrointestinal tract can cause bleeding in your digestive tract.
117) Arteriovenous Graft Site Stenosis
The definition usually relates to anatomical changes (size and flow), the ability to cannulate the fistula for hemodialysis, and whether interventions were required to promote maturation of the fistula. The period of follow-up is also an important component of the definition because longer follow-up reduces failure rates in slow to mature fistulas.
118) Arteriovenous Graft Thrombosis
Is the formation of a blood clot inside the arteriovenous graft. The development of peripheral vein stenosis is the primary cause of fistula and graft thrombosis.AVG thrombosis extends the entire length of the graft, from the arterial to the venous anastomosis. The composition of the thrombus is predictable. At the arterial anastomosis, there is a ‘white’ clot, which is platelet rich. This platelet plug is resistant to tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) (38).
Refers to inflammation of your arteries that damages your blood vessel walls and reduces blood flow to your organs. There are several types of arteritis. The symptoms and complications that occur depend on which arteries are affected and the degree of damage.Untreated temporal arteritis can cause serious damage to the blood vessels in your body, and in some cases, it can be life-threatening. Signs and symptoms of giant cell arteritis include: Persistent, severe head pain, usually in your temple area. Scalp tenderness. Jaw pain when you chew or open your mouth wide. Fever. Fatigue. Unintended weight loss. Vision loss or double vision, particularly in people who also have jaw pain.
120) Arteritis Coronary
Inflammation of the wall of the coronary arteries, leading to coronary artery necrosis, aneurysm, and/or thrombosis. Its clinical complications include myocardial infarction, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. It is a rare but devastating complication of medium to large-vessel vasculitis, such as Takayasu arteritis (TA), giant cell arteritis, and unclassified arteritis.
Describes joint stiffness. Among its many causes are overuse, sprains, injury, gout, tendonitis and a number of infectious diseases, including rheumatic fever and chickenpox. It can be caused by injury to ligaments, tendons, or bursae (fluid sacs) around the joints. Pain can also be a sign of inflammation, infection, or an allergic response. Less commonly, pain can be a symptom of cancer or disease. The primary symptom of arthralgia is joint pain, which may be described as dull, sharp, stabbing, shooting, burning, throbbing, or aching. Arthralgia can range in intensity from mild to severe, and it can appear suddenly or develop more slowly and get worse over time.
123) Arthritis Enteropathic
Is an umbrella term used to describe various patterns of inflammatory arthritis which may be associated with a range of gastrointestinal (GI) pathologies. Its constituent conditions are classified as part of the seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Axial arthritis (spondylitis and sacroiliitis) associated with IBD: The condition may precede any GI symptoms and be active despite good control of bowel disease. There is a gradual onset of low back pain radiating down the back of the legs. Symptoms tend to be worse in the morning. Prolonged sitting or standing can bring the symptoms on. Moderate movement tends to improve the symptoms.The arthritis tends to be chronic and long-standing.
Is a condition in which fluid collects in spaces within your abdomen. If severe, ascites may be painful. The problem may keep you from moving around comfortably. Ascites can set the stage for an infection in your abdomen. Fluid may also move into your chest and surround your lungs.Complications can include spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Complications may include spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, and thrombosis. Portal vein thrombosis and splenic vein thrombosis involve clotting of blood affects the hepatic portal vein or varices associated with splenic vein.
125) Aseptic Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis
Is a life-threatening complication that may rarely result from infection spreading back through the emissary veins from the maxillary or nasal region, or upper teeth, or from infected thrombi in the anterior facial vein or less commonly the pterygoid plexus. Infection can reach the cavernous sinus via either the ophthalmic veins or the foramen ovale. Clinically, cavernous sinus thrombosis causes gross eyelid oedema, ipsilateral pulsatile exophthalmos, cyanosis due to venous obstruction, rigors and high swinging pyrexia. The superior orbital fissure syndrome (proptosis, fixed dilated pupil and limitation of eye movements) rapidly develops. Early recognition of cavernous sinus thrombosis which, often presents with fever, headache, eye findings such as periorbital swelling, and ophthalmoplegia, is critical for a good outcome.
126) Aspartate Aminotransferase Abnormal
A small amount of AST is typically in your bloodstream. Higher-than-typical amounts of this enzyme in your blood may be a sign of a health problem. Atypical levels can be associated with liver injury. AST levels increase when there’s damage to the tissues and cells where the enzyme is found. High levels of AST in the blood may indicate hepatitis, cirrhosis, mononucleosis, or other liver diseases. High AST levels can also indicate heart problems or pancreatitis. If your results are not in the normal range, it doesn’t necessarily mean that you have a medical condition needing treatment.
127) Aspartate Aminotransferase Increased
A high AST level is a sign of liver damage, but it can also mean you have damage to another organ that makes it, like your heart or kidneys. The normal range of an SGOT test is generally between 8 and 45 units per liter of serum. In general, men may naturally have higher amounts of AST in the blood. A score above 50 for men and 45 for women is high and may indicate damage.
128) Aspartate-glutamate-transporter Deficiency
Aspartate-Glutamate Carrier 1 (AGC1) deficiency is a rare neurological disease caused by mutations in the solute carrier family 25, member 12 (SLC25A12) gene, encoding for the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier isoform 1 (AGC1), a component of the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle (MAS), expressed in excitable tissues only.
129) AST To Platelet Ratio Index Increased
The AST to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI) predicts fibrosis and cirrhosis in hepatitis C patients. It offers a non-invasive way to predict which patients have cirrhosis without imaging or biopsy. High levels of AST in the blood may indicate hepatitis, cirrhosis, mononucleosis, or other liver diseases. High AST levels can also indicate heart problems or pancreatitis.
130) AST/ALT Ratio Abnormal
Is the ratio between the concentrations of the enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase, aka alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the blood of a human or animal. It is measured with a blood test and is sometimes useful in medical diagnosis for elevated transaminases to differentiate between causes of liver damage, or hepatotoxicity. ALT stands for alanine aminotransferase, which is another type of liver enzyme. If you have high levels of AST and/or ALT, it may mean that you have some type of liver damage. You may also have an AST test part of a series of liver function tests.
Is a disease that affects your lungs. It is one of the most common long-term diseases of children, but adults can have asthma, too. In addition to difficulty breathing, you may commonly complain of throat tightness, hoarseness and difficulty getting air in more than out. Episodes of vocal cord dysfunction often occur more during the day than at night, while poorly controlled asthma symptoms are often worse at night. The most common symptoms of asthma are: wheezing (a whistling sound when breathing) breathlessness. a tight chest – it may feel like a band is tightening around it.
132) Asymptomatic COVID-19
Defined by the CDC as “when a person is infected with a virus and will never feel any symptoms at all,” asymptomatic has become a catchall phrase for those who feel fine and aren’t exhibiting any of the common markers of Covid-19 — lack of taste or smell, dry cough, fever — but still test positive.
Is a degenerative disease of the nervous system. Many symptoms of Ataxia mimic those of being drunk, such as slurred speech, stumbling, falling, and incoordination. These symptoms are caused by damage to the cerebellum, the part of the brain that is responsible for coordinating movement. Typically the most common symptoms of ataxia are listed below: Balance and coordination are affected first. Poor coordination of hands, arms, and legs. Slurring of speech. Wide-based gait (manner of walking). Difficulty with writing and eating. Slow eye movements.
Is a phenomenon where cholesterol crystals and atheroma debris such as cholesterol, platelets, and fibrins embolizes from proximal large arteries such as the aorta and its major branches to distal small arteries. The symptoms experienced in cholesterol embolism depend largely on the organ involved. Non-specific symptoms often described are fever, muscle ache and weight loss. Embolism to the legs causes a mottled appearance and purple discoloration of the toes, small infarcts and areas of gangrene due to tissue death that usually appear black, and areas of the skin that assume a marbled pattern known as livedo reticularis. The pain is usually severe and requires opiates. If the ulcerated plaque is below the renal arteries the manifestations appear in both lower extremities. Very rarely the ulcerated plaque is below the aortic bifurcation and those cases the changes occur only in one lower extremity.
136) Atonic Seizures
Are a type of seizure that causes sudden loss of muscle strength. These seizures are also called akinetic seizures, drop attacks or drop seizures. The sudden lack of muscle strength, or tone, can cause the person to fall to the ground. The person usually remains conscious, and may not always fall down. This can lead to head-drooping or falling. Atonic seizures are usually generalized seizures, meaning they affect both sides of the brain. The symptoms of an atonic seizure in children include: going limp and falling. sudden loss of muscle tone. briefly losing consciousness.
137) Atrial Thrombosis
Is a blood clot in an artery, which can be very serious because it can stop blood reaching important organs. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body and the heart muscle. Thrombosis occurs when blood clots block veins or arteries. Symptoms include pain and swelling in one leg, chest pain, or numbness on one side of the body. Complications of thrombosis can be life-threatening, such as a stroke or heart attack.
138) Atrophic Thyroiditis
Is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by thyroid autoantibodies, functional hypothyroidism, and absence of goiter. Symptoms expressing themselves later in the course of hypothyroidism are hoarseness; menstrual disorders; puffy hands, face, and feet; thickening of the skin; thinning of the eyebrows; increased cholesterol levels; muscle and/or joint aches and stiffness; slowed speech; and decreased hearing.
139) Atypical Benign Partial Epilepsy
(ABPE) is a complicated form of benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) . It is characterized by an earlier age of onset, multiple seizure types including epileptic negative myoclonic, atonic, and atypical absence seizures, as well as focal motor seizures Atypical benign partial epilepsy (ABPE) of childhood or pseudo-Lennox syndrome is a form of idiopathic focal epilepsy characterized by multiple seizure types, focal and/or generalized epileptiform discharges, continuous spike–wave during sleep (CSWS), and sometimes reversible neurocognitive deficits.
140) Atypical Pneumonia
Is an infection affecting the lower respiratory tract. The types of bacteria that cause it tend to create less severe symptoms than those in typical pneumonia. If the atypical pneumonia is caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma, then it is common to have ear and sinus infections, as well. Atypical pneumonia contagious, walking pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is contagious (spread through person-to-person contact). When an infected person coughs or sneezes, tiny droplets containing the bacteria become airborne and can be inhaled by others who are nearby.
The most common visual symptoms of aura migraine are positive symptoms such as flash hallucinations, flash scotoma, visual distortion and sense of heat wave. Negative symptoms may also occur, such as dark spots, blurred vision and homonymous hemianopsia.
142) Autoantibody Positive
An antibody made against substances formed by a person’s own body. Autoantibodies can directly destroy cells that have the substances on them or can make it easier for other white blood cells to destroy them. Autoantibodies are defined as well-characterized if the serum or CSF produces a recognizable staining pattern in the fixed TBA (e.g., selective staining of Purkinje cells with Yo-positive patient’s serum) (Figures 1A–J) and the antibody specificity is confirmed with the recombinant line assay.
143) Autoimmune Anaemia
Is a group of disorders characterized by a malfunction of the immune system that produces autoantibodies, which attack red blood cells as if they were substances foreign to the body. Some people have no symptoms, and other people are tired, short of breath, and pale. Generally symptoms of acquired autoimmune hemolytic anemia resemble those of other anemias and may includefatigue, pale color, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, dark urine, chills, and backache. In severe cases, yellow skin color (jaundice) may be present and the spleen may be enlarged.
144) Autoimmune Aplastic Anaemia
Normally, your immune system attacks only foreign substances. When your immune system attacks your own body, you are said to have an autoimmune disease. Other autoimmune diseases include rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. the disorder may result from the body’s own immune system causing damage to bone marrow stem cells.
145) Autoimmune arthritis
Is the name given to a group of arthritis types where a person’s immune system attacks itself. The most common example is rheumatoid arthritis. When the immune system attacks itself, the result is inflammation in a joint that can cause pain, stiffness, and mobility problems. Symptoms generally begin slowly and can come and go. Joint pain and inflammation affect both sides of the body equally, and can be marked by these signs and symptoms: deformed joints, hard bumps of tissue (nodules) under the skin on your arms, reduced range of motion, dry mouth, difficulty sleeping, fatigue, weight loss,eye inflammation, dry eyes, itchy eyes, eye discharge,fever,anemia, chest pain when you breathe (pleurisy).
146) Autoimmune Blistering Disease
Also called autoimmune blistering diseases or autoimmune bullous disorders) are a group of rare skin diseases. They happen when your immune system attacks your skin and mucous membranes — the lining inside your mouth, nose, and other parts of your body. This causes blisters to form. A blister can be either tiny or large and consists of a fluid-filled bubble that forms underneath the surface of damaged or dead skin. Most blisters develop in response to irritation or injury of the skin. In autoimmune blistering diseases, blisters form because the body creates antibodies that attack certain proteins required for the proper health and function of the skin. In many cases, blisters can rupture becoming open sores or wounds.
147) Autoimmune Cholangitis
Is the term that has been used to describe patients who have the clinical, biochemical, and histologic characteristics of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), but who are antinuclear antibody positive rather than anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) positive in their sera. Cholangitis is an infection of the bile ducts. Acute cholangitis may cause symptoms of fever, jaundice, and abdominal pain.
148) Autoimmune Colitis
Autoimmune disease associated with microscopic colitis, such as rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease or psoriasis. Autoimmune disease occurs when your body’s immune system attacks healthy tissues. Bile acid not being properly absorbed and irritating the lining of the colon. Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease of the large intestine, in which the lining of the colon becomes inflamed and develops tiny open sores, or ulcers. This condition is the result of your immune system’s overactive response.
149) Autoimmune Demyelinating Disease
The body’s own immune system can attack healthy cells. This can happen anywhere in the body, including the myelin covering nerve cells in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves. These diseases are not the result of a genetic defect from birth. Most of the nerves in your body are covered with a protective layer called myelin. It’s a lot like the insulation on electric wires. It helps messages from your brain move quickly and smoothly through your body, the way electricity flows from a power source. Demyelinating disorders are any conditions that damage myelin. When this happens, scar tissue forms in its place. The most common symptoms of demyelinating disorders are: Vision loss. Muscle weakness. Muscle stiffness. Muscle spasms. Changes in how well your bladder and bowels work. Sensory changes.
150) Autoimmune Dermatitis
Atopic dermatitis (AD), one of the most frequent inflammatory skin diseases worldwide, is believed to result from a disturbed skin barrier as well as aberrant immune reactions against per se harmless allergens. Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as atopic eczema, is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by intense itching and recurrent eczematous lesions. Nowadays, AD has become a major public health issues because of its high prevalence, considerable patient-burden as well as increased healthcare utilization.
151) Autoimmune Disorder
Autoimmune disease happens when the body’s natural defense system can’t tell the difference between your own cells and foreign cells, causing the body to mistakenly attack normal cells. There are more than 80 types of autoimmune diseases that affect a wide range of body parts. Autoimmune disorders in general cannot be cured, but the condition can be controlled in many cases. Historically, treatments include: anti-inflammatory drugs – to reduce inflammation and pain. corticosteroids – to reduce inflammation.
152) Autoimmune Encephalopathy
Refers to a group of conditions that occur when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks healthy brain cells , leading to inflammation of the brain. People with autoimmune encephalitis may have various neurologic and/or psychiatric symptoms. Common symptoms include: Impaired memory and understanding. Unusual and involuntary movements.Involuntary movements of the face (facial dyskinesia).Difficulty with balance, speech or vision. Insomnia. Weakness or numbness. Seizures. Severe anxiety or panic attacks.
153) Autoimmune Endocrine Disorder
Autoimmune endocrine diseases are serious disorders that utilize immense health care resources and cause tremendous disability. They include type 1 diabetes mellitus, thyroiditis, Graves disease, Addison disease, and polyglandular syndromes. Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-like molecules determining tissue specific targeting that with the loss of tolerance leads to organ specific autoimmunity.
154) Autoimmune Enteropathy
Is a rare condition that causes children to have a lot of diarrhea, often to the point of needing intravenous (IV) fluids. It can also affect a child’s ability to absorb food and vitamins. Symptoms: Diarrhea (frequent loss of fluids). Intestinal inflammation.Vomiting. Intestinal bleeding. Difficulty or inability to gain weight. Rapid weight loss. Decreased urine output from dehydration.
155) Autoimmune Eye Disorder
Some autoimmune diseases that commonly affect the vision and eyes are: Rheumatoid arthritis. Thyroid diseases. Other autoimmune conditions that can cause problems with vision and the eyes are: Sjogren’s syndrome. Lupus. Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis).Ankylosing spondylitis.
156) Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia
Is a rare blood condition that causes the number of red blood cells in your body to be reduced. How does this happen? Antibodies are proteins which are made by the immune system. These proteins normally attach to the surface of bacteria. Generally symptoms of acquired autoimmune hemolytic anemia resemble those of other anemias and may include fatigue, pale color, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, dark urine, chills, and backache. In severe cases, yellow skin color (jaundice) may be present and the spleen may be enlarged.
157) Autoimmune Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia
Indicates the presence in patients of anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4)-polyanion antibodies that are able to activate platelets strongly even in the absence of heparin (heparin-independent platelet activation). HIT can often be diagnosed by measuring the platelet count and PF4 antibody level in the blood. Symptoms of new blood clot formation may suggest HIT. Symptoms of deep vein thrombosis include pain or tenderness, sudden swelling, discoloration, visibly large veins, and skin that is warm to the touch.
158) Autoimmune Hepatitis
Is a chronic disease in which your body’s immune system attacks the liver and causes inflammation and liver damage. Without treatment, autoimmune hepatitis may get worse and lead to complications, such as cirrhosis. Autoimmune hepatitis may develop after you’re infected with the measles, herpes simplex or Epstein-Barr virus. Autoimmune hepatitis must be considered in all patients with acute or chronic hepatitis of undetermined cause, including individuals with allograft dysfunction after liver transplantation. The disease may be asymptomatic and have no physical findings.
159) Autoimmune Hyperlipidaemia
Is a metabolic disease of immune origin, in which the lipoprotein clearance is inhibited by circulating autoantibodies.Risks Associated with Hyperlipidaemia: Atherosclerosis (narrowing of the arteries due to plaque build-up), Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) leading to heart attacks, Stroke / transient ischaemic attack, and. Peripheral vascular disease (PVD).
160) Autoimmune Hypothyroidism
The most common cause of hypothyroidism is an autoimmune disorder known as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Autoimmune disorders occur when your immune system produces antibodies that attack your own tissues. Sometimes this process involves your thyroid gland. Most people with Hashimoto’s, also known as chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, have auto-antibodies that attack and destroy cells in the thyroid gland.
161) Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease
Is a rare disease that happens when your body’s immune system mistakenly attacks your inner ear. It can cause dizziness, ringing in your ears, and hearing loss. Less than 1% of the 28 million Americans who have hearing loss have it because of AIED. The symptoms of AIED are sudden hearing loss in one ear progressing rapidly to the second ear. The hearing loss can progress over weeks or months. Patients may feel fullness in the ear and experience vertigo. In addition, a ringing, hissing, or roaring sound in the ear may be experienced.
162) Autoimmune Lung Disease
With an autoimmune disease, a person’s own immune system attacks the lungs, causing inflammation and scarring that can impair lung function and breathing. Rheumatoid arthritis may lead to a group of lung conditions categorized as rheumatoid lung disease.
163) Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome
Is a disorder in which the body cannot properly regulate the number of immune system cells ( lymphocytes ). This results in the overproduction of lymphocytes, which build up and cause enlargement of the lymph nodes , liver and spleen. The major clinical symptoms of ALPS, including fatigue, nosebleeds, and infections, result from a proliferation of lymphocytes and autoimmune destruction of other blood cells. The diagnosis of ALPS is based on clinical findings, laboratory findings, and identification of genetic mutations.
164) Autoimmune Myocarditis
Is an autoimmune disease that affects the heart. The condition is characterized by inflammation of the heart muscle (myocardium). Some people with autoimmune myocarditis have no noticeable symptoms of the condition. Symptoms: Chest pain. Rapid or irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias). Shortness of breath, at rest or during activity. Fluid buildup with swelling of the legs, ankles and feet. Fatigue. Other signs and symptoms of a viral infection such as a headache, body aches, joint pain, fever, a sore throat or diarrhea.
165) Autoimmune Myositis
Myositis (my-o-SY-tis) is a rare type of autoimmune disease that inflames and weakens muscle fibers. Autoimmune diseases occur when the body’s own immune system attacks itself. In the case of myositis, the immune system attacks healthy muscle tissue, which results in inflammation, swelling, pain, and eventual weakness.The main symptom of myositis is muscle weakness. The weakness may be noticeable or may only be found with testing. Muscle pain (myalgias) may or may not be present. Symptoms of Myositis: Rash. Fatigue. Thickening of the skin on the hands. Difficulty swallowing. Difficulty breathing.
166) Autoimmune Nephritis
Is an autoimmune kidney disease, meaning that the disease is due tothe body’s immune system attacking tissues in the kidney. IgA nephropathy is one of the most common kidney diseases, other than those caused by diabetes or high blood pressure. What are the symptoms of acute nephritis? pain in the pelvis, pain or a burning sensation while urinating, a frequent need to urinate,cloudy urine, blood or pus in the urine, pain in the kidney area or abdomen,swelling of the body, commonly in the face, legs, and feet, vomiting.
167) Autoimmune Neuropathy
Occurs when the nerves that control involuntary bodily functions are damaged. It can affect blood pressure, temperature control, digestion, bladder function and even sexual function. Damage to the nerves that help your organs and organ systems to function can cause a condition called autonomic neuropathy (AN). This nerve damage disturbs signal processing between the autonomic nervous system and the brain.
168) Autoimmune Neutropenia
(AIN) is a heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by a decreased neutrophil count in the setting of defects in cell-mediated or humoral immunity. The neutropenia can be an isolated clinical finding, or can be associated with defects in other hematopoietic lineages. Symptoms: Weak immune system, mouth ulcers, sore throat, lethargy, high fever and chills.
169) Autoimmune Pancreatitis
(AIP) is a chronic inflammation that is thought to be caused by the body’s immune system attacking the pancreas and that responds to steroid therapy. The signs and symptoms of autoimmune pancreatitis: Mass or growth in the pancreas. Stomach pain.Weight loss. Back pain. Fatigue (extreme tiredness).
170) Autoimmune Pancytopenia
Is known to be caused by coexisting autoantibodies against three lineages of blood cells. We report a rare case of autoimmune pancytopenia (AIP) which was preceded by refractory anemia. Peripheral destruction of cells can be associated with many autoimmune conditions (such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis) and splenic sequestration (alcoholic liver cirrhosis, HIV, tuberculosis, malaria). Pancytopenia occurs when there is a problem with the blood-forming stem cells in the bone marrow. Signs and symptoms include fatigue, weakness, dizziness, trouble breathing, fast heartbeat, fever, pale skin, purple or red spots on the skin, rash, easy bruising, and abnormal bleeding.
171) Autoimmune Pericarditis
Examples of autoimmune diseases associated with pericarditis include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and Behçet’s disease. Recurrent pericarditis, like chronic myocarditis, is often considered to be an autoimmune consequence of a prior viral infection. 1 Both the pericardium and the heart develop from the mesoderm, but embryologically the two organs are quite distinct. A common symptom of acute pericarditis is a sharp, stabbing chest pain, usually coming on quickly. It’s often is in the middle or left side of the chest, and there may be pain in one or both shoulders. Sitting up and leaning forward tends to ease the pain, while lying down and breathing deep worsens it.
172) Autoimmune Retinopathy
Is an umbrella term for a group of rare autoimmune retinal degenerative diseases presumably caused by aberrant cross-reactivity of serum autoantibodies directed against retinal antigens. Patients with npAIR typically present with sudden vision loss, scotomas, photopsias, nyctalopia or photoaversion and dyschromatopsia. Signs and symptoms can differ depending on which retinal cells are affected.
173) Autoimmune Thyroid Disorder
The most common forms of autoimmune thyroid disorders are chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, or Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, which presents with symptoms of an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) and Graves’ disease, which presents with symptoms of an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism).
174) Autoimmune Thyroiditis
If your thyroid becomes inflamed, you have thyroiditis. Sometimes it happens because your body makes antibodies that attack your thyroid by mistake. This condition is called autoimmune thyroiditis, chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, or Hashimoto’s disease. It occurs when your body makes antibodies that attack the cells in your thyroid.
175) Autoimmune Uveitis
Is an inflammatory process of these uveal components due to an autoimmune reaction to self-antigens or caused by an innate inflammatory reaction secondary to an external stimulus. It can present as an isolated entity or associated with a systemic autoimmune or autoinflammatory disease. The signs, symptoms and characteristics of uveitis may include: Eye redness. Eye pain. Light sensitivity. Blurred vision. Dark, floating spots in your field of vision (floaters). Decreased vision.
176) Autoinflammation With Infantile Enterocolitis
Is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by onset of recurrent flares of autoinflammation in early infancy. Affected individuals tend to have poor overall growth and gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy associated with laboratory evidence of activated inflammation.
177) Autoinflammatory Disease
Refer to problems with the innate immune system’s reactions. Immune cells target the body’s own healthy tissues by mistake, signaling the body to attack them. This can cause intense episodes of inflammation that result in such symptoms as fever, rash, or joint swelling. Autoinflammatory diseases are Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF). Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). Deficiency of IL-1-Receptor Antagonist (DIRA). Hyper IgD Syndrome (HIDS).
178) Automatism Epileptic
May be defined as a state of clouding of consciousness that occurs during, or immediately after, a seizure and during which the individual retains control of posture and muscle tone and performs simple or complex movements and actions without being aware of what is happening. Automatism: An unconscious movement that may resemble simple repetitive tics or may be a complex sequence of natural-looking movements. This curious type of behavior occurs in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders.
179) Autonomic Nervous System Imbalance
Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result of another disease, such asParkinson’s disease, alcoholism and diabetes. Problems can affect either part of the system, as in complex regional pain syndromes, or all of the system. Some types are temporary, but many worsen over time. Autonomic imbalance,characterized by a hyperactive sympathetic system and a hypoactive parasympathetic system, is associated with various pathological conditions. Over time, excessive energy demands on the system can lead to premature aging and diseases.
180) Autonomic Seizure
Focal autonomic seizures are characterized by alterations in systems controlled by the autonomic nervous system at seizure onset. These may occur with or without objective clinical signs of a seizure evident to the observer. Autonomic symptoms can provide important clues to identify the seizure onset zone. Autonomic symptoms are generally more prominent when they originate from the temporal lobe, thus demonstrating the importance of the limbic structures to the CAN.
181) Axial Spondyloarthritis
Is an umbrella term for types of inflammatory arthritis that primarily affect the spine and the sacroiliac (SI) joints that connect the lower spine to the pelvis, resulting in pain in the lower back, hips, and buttocks. Non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) is a type of arthritis in your spine. It causes inflammation, which leads to symptoms like redness, swelling, heat, stiffness, and pain. The condition affects the joints and the entheses — tissues that connect bones to ligaments or tendons.
182) Axillary Vein Thrombosis
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) arises with an incidence of about 1 per 1000 persons per year; 4–10% of all DVTs are located in an upper extremity (DVT-UE). DVT-UE can lead to complications such as post-thrombotic syndrome and pulmonary embolism and carries a high mortality. Deep vein thrombosis of the upper extremity (DVT-UE) can occur in any of the veins of the upper extremity or thoracic inlet. These include the jugular, brachiocephalic, subclavian, and axillary veins as well as the more distal brachial, ulnar, and radial veins.
183) Axonal And Demyelinating Polyneuropathy
Axonal neuropathy is a neurological disorder that involves degeneration and loss of axons, whereas demyelinating neuropathy causes degeneration of myelin (fatty layer of insulating substance) surrounding axons of neurons. Axonal neuropath is a term describing neuropathies with both sensory and motor involvement in a length dependant distribution where neurophysiology reveals axonal damage. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a rare neurological disorder in which there is inflammation of nerve roots and peripheral nerves and destruction of the fatty protective covering (myelin sheath) of the nerve fibers.
184) Axonal Neuropathy
A characteristic feature of this condition, is caused by damage to a particular part of peripheral nerves called axons, which are the extensions of nerve cells (neurons) that transmit nerve impulses. The majority of paraneoplastic neuropathies are sensory, motor, axonal, or axonal and demyelinating polyneuropathies and they are seldom painful. Giant axonal neuropathy can also impact the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary body processes. Affected individuals may experience problems with constipation, heat intolerance, and the release of urine (neurogenic bladder), and a reduction in or loss of the ability to sweat.
Is defined as the presence of bacteria in ascitic fluid without clinical features of peritonitis or increased ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear cells. One or more clinical symptoms of infection were present in the majority (78%) of patients with bacterascites. Sole abdominal discomfort was reported by 18%, HE by 16%, abdominal pain by 9%, and fevers or chills by 3%.
186) Baltic Myoclonic Epilepsy
Progressive myoclonic epilepsies (PME) are a group of more than 10 rare types of epilepsy that are “progressive.” People with PME have a decline in motor skills, balance and cognitive function over time. Myoclonus indicates frequent muscle jerks, both spontaneous and often stimulus induced. Photosensitive, occasionally violent, myoclonus, usually worse upon waking; generalised tonic-clonic seizures, sometimes associated with absence attacks; and light-sensitive, generally synchronous, spike-and-wave discharges on EEG that preceded clinical manifestations.
187) Band Sensation
Is a symptom of multiple sclerosis in which you feel chest pain, rib pain or a tight uncomfortable band around your chest. It can be felt anywhere between the neck and the waist and may feel so tight around the chest that it’s painful to breathe.
188) Basedow’s Disease
Is a disorder that causes hyperthyroidism in which thyroid hormones are produced in excess. Basedow’s disease, also known as Graves’ disease, is a common cause of hyperthyroidism. Basedow’s disease occurs when the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone, known as hyperthyroidism. This autoimmune disease is also called Graves’ disease. The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland that sits in the front of your throat.
189) Basilar Srtery Thrombosis
It provides oxygen-rich blood to the cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus, occipital, and medial temporal lobes of the brain. Basilar artery thrombosis is a devastating form of stroke with high morbidity and mortality. Its initial presentation is often extremely nonspecific and may include dizziness or blurring of vision.
Basophils and mast cells share biochemical and functional characteristics, but they are not identical. In humans, basophils are the least frequent of the three granulocytes, typically accounting for less than 0.5% of blood leukocytes. Basophils circulate as mature cells and can be recruited into tissues, particularly at sites of immunologic or inflammatory responses, but they ordinarily do not reside in tissues.
191) B-cell Aplasia
A condition characterized by extremely low B–cell counts. It occurs when anti-CD19 CAR T-cells attack and kill CD19-expressing B–lymphocytes. It is the result of on-target off-tumor toxicity of CD19-redirected CAR-Ts against normal B-cells which occurs simultaneously with the targeting of malignant CD19+ blasts. B-cell aplasia is considered a tool for measuring the persistence of CAR-Ts after obtaining the desired clinical outcomes.
192) Behcet’s Syndrome
Is a rare multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by ulcers affecting the mouth and genitals, various skin lesions, and abnormalities affecting the eyes. The earliest symptom of Behçet’s syndrome is usually painful canker sores on the mucous membranes that line the mouth (aphthous stomatitis). It causes inflammation of the blood vessels (vasculitis). Involvement of small vessels is thought to drive many of the problems that the disorder causes.
193) Benign Ethnic Neutropenia
Benign ethnic neutropenia is a mild disorder diagnosed in people of African or Middle Eastern descent that is characterized by low neutrophil counts. Symptoms: Any upper respiratory symptoms suggesting viral infection. An enlarged spleen or enlarged lymph nodes to suggest lymphoma or leukemia. Decreased energy or bleeding associated with a low red blood cell count or low platelets2.
194) Benign Familial Neonatal Convulsions
Benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (CwG) is a clinical condition characterized by convulsions occurring in otherwise healthy children, usually in the absence of fever and in the presence of mild acute gastroenteritis. Signs & symptoms: Random or roving eye movements, eyelid blinking or fluttering, eyes rolling up, eye opening, staring. Sucking, smacking, chewing and protruding tongue.Unusual bicycling or pedalling movements of the legs. Thrashing or struggling movements. Long pauses in breathing (apnea).
195) Benign Familial Pemphigus
Is a chronic autosomal dominant disorder with incomplete penetrance. Typically begins as a symmetrical painful erosive and crusted skin rash in the skin folds. Common sites include the armpits, groins, and neck, under the breasts and between the buttocks. The lesions tend to come and go and leave no scars.
196) Benign Rolandic Epilepsy
Is a syndrome that starts causing seizures in children between ages 6 and 8. Seizures that come on when the child is awake involve twitching, numbness, or tingling of one side of the child’s face or tongue without impaired awareness (called a focal aware seizure).
197) Beta-2 glycoprotein Antibody Positive
Is considered one of the primary autoantibodies called antiphospholipid antibodies that mistakenly target the body’s own lipid-proteins (phospholipids) found in the outermost layer of cells (cell membranes) and platelets. A positive beta-2 glycoprotein 1 antibody test may indicate that you have antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), as they are most frequently seen with this condition. If the test is positive, it will be repeated about 12 weeks later to determine whether it is persistent or temporary.
198) Bickerstaff’s Encephalitis
Is a rare condition that must be suspected in patients presenting with ataxia, ophthalmoplegia and central nervous system involvement, which may take the form of pseudobulbar affect, decreased consciousness and/or pyramidal signs. (BBE) is a rare post-infectious neurological disease characterized by the association of external ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, lower limb arreflexia, extensor plantar response and disturbance of consciousness (drowsiness, stupor or coma).
199) Bile Output Abnormal
Gallstones are the most common cause of blocked bile ducts. If the duct remains blocked, bacteria backs up and enters the blood stream, it may cause severe infection called ascending cholangitis.
200) Bile Output Decreased
If a bile salt deficiency is left untreated, it can increase your risk of forming kidney stones and gallstones. There are two conditions that are associated with higher risks of bile salt malabsorption. These are Crohn’s disease and irritable bowel syndrome. The decrease or cessation of bile formation or flow is known as cholestasis. Cholestasis can result from the impaired canalicular secretion of bile, ductular disease, or obstruction of bile flow through the biliary tree. Causes of decreased canalicular secretion include drugs, sex hormones, and inherited defects.
201) Biliary Ascites
Occurs most often as a complication of biliary procedures—endoscopic, radiologic, or operative—but can occur after trauma. Clinical signs are minimal except for abdominal distention, most likely because the bile initially is sterile. What are the symptoms of ascites? Swelling in the abdomen. Weight gain. Sense of fullness. Bloating. Sense of heaviness. Nausea or indigestion. Vomiting. Swelling in the lower legs.
202) Bilirubin Conjugated Abnormal
Usually due to hepatocellular or cholestatic diseases; moreover, it may be observed in systemic illnesses with hepatic involvement. As conjugated hyperbilirubinemia may result from secondary causes, the epidemiology will correlate with the specific disease state.
203) Bilirubin Conjugated Increased
The conjugated (direct) bilirubin level is often elevated by alcohol, infectious hepatitis, drug reactions, and autoimmune disorders. Posthepatic disorders also can cause conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Elevated conjugated bilirubin levels usually indicate hepatobiliary disease. Normal serum values of total bilirubin typically are 0.2-1 mg/dL (3.4-17.1 µmol/L), of which no more than 0.2 mg/dL (3.4 µmol/L) are directly reacting.
204) Bilirubin Urine Present
If bilirubin is found in your urine, it may indicate: A liver disease such as hepatitis. A blockage in the structures that carry bile from your liver. A problem with liver function. Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment found in bile , a fluid produced by the liver.
205) Biopsy Liver Abnormal
What Abnormal Results Mean. The biopsy may reveal a number of liver diseases, including cirrhosis, hepatitis, or infections such as tuberculosis. It may also indicate cancer. Your liver function tests can be abnormal because: Your liver is inflamed (for example, by infection, toxic substances like alcohol and some medicines, or by an immune condition). Your liver cells have been damaged (for example, by toxic substances, such as alcohol, paracetamol, poisons).
206) Biotinidase Deficiency
Is an inherited disorder in which the body is unable to recycle the vitamin biotin. If this condition is not recognized and treated, its signs and symptoms typically appear within the first few months of life, although it can also become apparent later in childhood. Biotin deficiency can cause thinning hair and loss of body hair; a rash around the eyes, nose, mouth, and anal area; pinkeye; high levels of acid in the blood and urine; seizures; skin infection; brittle nails; and nervous system disorders.
207) Birdshot Chorioretinopathy
Is an eye condition in which painless, light-colored spots develop on the retina. It causes severe, progressive inflammation of both the choroid and retina.These spots are scattered in a “birdshot” pattern. The exact cause of birdshot is unknown but it is thought to be an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease is when the body’s immune system gets confused and begins to attacks its own tissues.
208) Blood Alkaline Phosphatase Abnormal
An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test measures the amount of ALP in the blood. It is used to diagnose liver damage or bone disorders. Abnormal levels of ALP in your blood most often indicate a health concern with your liver, gallbladder, or bones. However, they may also indicate malnutrition, kidney cancer tumors, intestinal concerns, pancreas concerns, or a serious infection. High alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels may indicate that there’s damage to your liver or that you have a type of bone disorder.
209) Blood Alkaline Phosphatase Increased
Higher-than-normal levels of ALP in your blood may indicate a health concern with your liver or gallbladder. This could include a blockage in your bile ducts, gallstones, cirrhosis, liver cancer, and some forms of hepatitis. If your liver isn’t working right, the amount of ALP in your blood may be high. Doctors often use the test to look for blocked bile ducts.
210) Blood Bilirubin Abnormal
High levels of bilirubin could mean your liver is not functioning correctly. However, high levels can also be due to medications, exercise, or certain foods. Bilirubin is also a product of breakdown of red blood cells, and an elevated reading may be related to disorders of red blood cells and not liver disease.
211) Blood Bilirubin Increased
Bilirubin passes through the liver and is eventually excreted out of the body. Higher than normal levels of bilirubin may indicate different types of liver or bile duct problems. Occasionally, higher bilirubin levels may be caused by an increased rate of destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis). With moderately high bilirubin, you may only have jaundice, which is a yellowish color in your eyes and skin. Jaundice is the main sign of high bilirubin levels.What are the symptoms of high bilirubin?Abdominal pain or swelling. Chills. Fever. Chest pain. Weakness. Lightheadedness. Fatigue. Nausea.
212) Blood Bilirubin Unconjugated Increased
Increased bilirubin production and consequential unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia can result from increased catabolic degradation of hemoglobin and other heme proteins, typically due to accelerated hemolysis, a large hematoma, dyserythropoiesis (e.g., megaloblastic and sideroblastic anemias), or sometimes due to destruction of transfused erythrocytes. A high level of bilirubin in the blood is known as hyperbilirubinemia. High bilirubin levels can cause jaundice. Jaundice makes the skin and the whites of the eyes appear yellow, due to the brown and yellow bilirubin in the blood.
213) Blood Cholinesterase Abnormal
Is a blood test and requires a few millilitres of blood from a vein. Cholinesterases are enzymes that are involved in helping the nervous system to function properly. There are two separate cholinesterase enzymes in the body: acetylcholinesterase, found in red blood cells as well as in the lungs, spleen, nerve endings, and the gray matter of the brain, and pseudocholinesterase (butyrylcholinesterase), found in the serum as well as the liver, muscle, pancreas, heart, and white matter of the brain. Cholinesterase tests measure the activity of these enzymes.
214) Blood Cholinesterase Decreased
Serum cholinesterase is a blood test that looks at levels of 2 substances that help the nervous system work properly. They are called acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase. Your nerves need these substances to send signals. Acetylcholinesterase is found in nerve tissue and red blood cells. Decreased pseudocholinesterase levels may be due to: Chronic infection. Chronic malnutrition. Heart attack. Liver damage. Metastasis. Obstructive jaundice. Poisoning from organophosphates (chemicals found in some pesticides) Inflammation that accompanies some diseases.
215) Blood Pressure Decreased
The causes of low blood pressure can range from dehydration to serious medical disorders. It’s important to find out what’s causing your low blood pressure so that it can be treated. For many people, abnormally low blood pressure (hypotension) can cause dizziness and fainting. In severe cases, low blood pressure can be life-threatening.
216) Blood Pressure Diastolic Decreased
If you have a low diastolic pressure, it means you have a low coronary artery pressure, and that means your heart is going to lack blood and oxygen. That is what we call ischemia, and that kind of chronic, low-level ischemia may weaken the heart over time and potentially lead to heart failure.If your diastolic blood pressure is too low, your heart muscles won’t get enough oxygenated blood. This can lead to weakening of your heart.
217) Blood Pressure Systolic Decreased
Clinically low blood pressure may result from a temporary issue, such as dehydration, or a more long-term one, such as a heart condition. Low blood pressure may be genetic or occur as a result of aging . Hypotension, also known as low blood pressure, is a blood pressure under 90/60 mm/Hg. In many people, it has no symptoms. When it does cause symptoms, these are usually unpleasant or disruptive, including dizziness, fainting and more.
218) Blue Toe Syndrome
Also known as occlusive vasculopathy, is a form of acute digital ischaemia in which one or more toes become a blue or violet colour. There may also be scattered areas of petechiae or cyanosis of the soles of the feet. Restricted blood supply to the feet can cause blue toe syndrome. This might occur when too much plaque sticks to the inside of arteries, or when a plaque fragment or a blood clot blocks a blood vessel in the foot.
219) Brachiocephalic Vein Thrombosis
The right and left brachiocephalic (or innominate) veins are a pair of large veins deep in the upper chest. Each brachiocephalic vein returns blood to the heart from the head, neck, arm, and chest. DVT signs and symptoms can include: Swelling in the affected leg. Rarely, there’s swelling in both legs. Pain in your leg. The pain often starts in your calf and can feel like cramping or soreness. Red or discolored skin on the leg. A feeling of warmth in the affected leg.
220) Brain Stem Embolism
The brain stem controls essential bodily functions, such as breathing, swallowing, and balance. A blockage or a bleed in the brain stem can cause a brain stem stroke, which can affect these vital roles. Symptoms including: Muscle weakness. Hearing and vision problems. Sensory changes. Problems with balance. A feeling of spinning when a person is still. Problems breathing. Problems chewing, swallowing, and speaking.
221) Brain Stem Thrombosis
This may be caused by: A clot from another part of the body that breaks off and becomes trapped in a blood vessel supplying the brain. A clot can form in an artery that supplies blood to the brain. A brain stem stroke can result in serious long-term problems. Medication and ongoing therapy may be necessary. Physical therapy can help people regain large motor skills and occupational therapy can help with everyday tasks. Speech therapy can help you regain control over how you speak and swallow.
222) Bromosulphthalein Test Abnormal
Is a phthalein dye used in liver function tests. The BSP retention test is routinely used to detect minor liver damage. The dye is given intravenously in a dose of 5 mg. per kg. body weight. The result of the test is generally expressed as percentage retention in the blood 45 minutes after the injection. One pair has a BspEI restriction site (TCCGGA,encoding Ser-Gly respectively) incorporated in the DNA sequence that encodes the tenth and eleventh amino acids of the linker.
223) Bronchial Oedema
Is a condition caused by excess fluid in the lungs. This fluid collects in the numerous air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. In most cases, heart problems cause pulmonary edema. Research of Bronchial Oedema has been linked to Edema, Asthma, Airway Obstruction, Inflammation, Bronchial Hyperreactivity.
Is an inflammation of the lining of your bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from your lungs. People who have bronchitis often cough up thickened mucus, which can be discolored. A bronchitis cough sounds like a rattle with a wheezing or whistling sound. As your condition progresses, you will first have a dry cough that can then progress towards coughing up white mucus.
225) Bronchitis Mycoplasmal
Clinical manifestations of Mycoplasma bronchiolitis include productive cough, wheeze, dyspnea, and fever. What are the symptoms of mycoplasma infection? Typical symptoms include fever, cough, bronchitis, sore throat, headache and tiredness. A common result of mycoplasma infection is pneumonia (sometimes called “walking pneumonia” because it is usually mild and rarely requires hospitalization).
226) Bronchitis Viral
Bronchitis is usually caused by a virus. Less often, it’s caused by a bacteria. In most cases, bronchitis is caused by the same viruses that cause the common cold or flu. The virus is contained in the millions of tiny droplets that come out of the nose and mouth when someone coughs or sneezes.
227) Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis Allergic
Is a form of lung disease that occurs in some people who are allergic to Aspergillus. With ABPA, this allergic reaction causes the immune system to overreact to Aspergillus leading to lung inflammation. Symptoms of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) are similar to asthma. The symptoms of invasive aspergillosis in the lungs include: Fever. Chest pain. Cough. Coughing up blood. Shortness of breath. Other symptoms can develop if the infection spreads from the lungs to other parts of the body.
228) Budd-Chiari Syndrome
Budd-Chiari syndrome is a condition in which the hepatic veins (veins that drain the liver) are blocked or narrowed by a clot (mass of blood cells). This blockage causes blood to back up into the liver, and as a result, the liver grows larger. Budd-Chiari syndrome involves obstruction or narrowing (occlusion) of the outflowing veins from either large regions of the liver or the entire liver. Blood clots or congenital webbing occur at the junction of these vessels with the large vein that carries the blood from the lower part of the body (inferior vena cava) to the right upper chamber (atrium) of the heart. This syndrome may begin gradually or abruptly.
229) Bulbar Palsy
Is a set of conditions that can occur due to damage to the lower cranial nerves. Clinical features of bulbar palsy range from difficulty swallowing and a lack of a gag reflex to inability to articulate words and excessive drooling. Bulbar palsy is most commonly caused by a brainstem stroke or tumor. Signs and symptoms of progressive bulbar palsy include difficulty swallowing, weak jaw and facial muscles, progressive loss of speech, and weakening of the tongue. Additional symptoms include less prominent weakness in the arms and legs, and outbursts of laughing or crying (called emotional lability).
230) Butterfly Rash
Is a common facial presentation of multiple disorders. It is characterized by an erythematous flat or raised rash across the bridge of the nose and cheeks, which usually spares nasolabial folds. It may be transient or progress to involve other areas of facial skin. A typical sign oflupusis a red, butterfly-shaped rash over your cheeks and nose, often following exposure to sunlight. No two cases of lupus are exactly alike. Signs and symptoms may come on suddenly or develop slowly, may be mild or severe, and may be temporary or permanent.
231) C1q Nephropathy
Is a kidney disease in which a large amount of protein is lost in the urine. It is one of the many diseases that can cause the Nephrotic Syndrome (see below). C1q is a normal protein of the immune system, and can be found floating in the circulation of most healthy people.
232) Caesarean Section
Also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the surgical procedure by which one or more babies are delivered through an incision in the mother’s abdomen, often performed because vaginal delivery would put the baby or mother at risk. Reasons for the operation include obstructed labor, twin pregnancy, high blood pressure in the mother, breech birth, and problems with the placenta or umbilical cord. Some of the main risks to you of having a caesarean include: infection of the wound (common) – causing redness, swelling, increasing pain and discharge from the wound. infection of the womb lining (common) – symptoms include a fever, tummy pain, abnormal vaginal discharge and heavy vaginal bleeding.
233) Calcium Embolism
Embolismis a well-established cause of stroke. In most cases, these emboli consist ofaccumulations of platelets, fibrin, and cholesterol, with traces of calcium. Descriptions of calcific emboli are infrequent. These emboli typically affect the anterior circulation, although there are cases in the literature of such emboli affecting the posterior cerebral artery.
Also known as pigmented purpura, is a skin condition in which red and brown dots and patches appear on the skin. It usually affects the lower legs and does not cause any symptoms. It is more commonly seen in adults though can affect children too. There is no known cause of capillaritis, although certain medications (e.g. aspirin, diuretics), venous hypertension (high pressure in the leg veins), allergy to clothing such as those where Khaki-clothing dye is used, rubber and systemic disease may play a role.
235) Caplan’s Syndrome
Presents with cough and shortness of breath, along with symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis such as prolonged morning stiffness, with symmetric arthritis in a systemic fashion. It is a combination of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and pneumoconiosis that manifests as intrapulmonary nodules, which appear homogeneous and well-defined on chest X-ray.
236) Cardiac Amyloidosis
Occurs when plaques of protein byproduct called amyloid build up in heart muscle, affecting its ability to pump blood. Symptoms of cardiac amyloidosis mimic those of heart failure, including: Thickened, less flexible heart tissue (restrictive cardiomyopathy, or “stiff heart syndrome”). Shortness of breath. Fatigue. Swelling in the legs. Heart palpitations. Lightheadedness.
237) Cardiac Arrest
Is when your heart suddenly stops pumping blood around your body. When your heart stops pumping blood, your brain is starved of oxygen. This causes you to fall unconscious and stop breathing. Signs and Symptoms of Sudden Cardiac Arrest: Fatigue or weakness.Shortness of breath. Fainting. Dizziness or lightheadedness. Heart palpitations. Chest pain.
238) Cardiac Failure
Conditions that overwork the heart. Conditions including high blood pressure, valve disease, thyroid disease, kidney disease, diabetes, or heart defects present at birth can all cause heart failure. In addition, heart failure can happen when several diseases or conditions are present at once.
239) Cardiac Failure Acute
Is a sudden, life-threatening condition in which the heart is unable to do its job. The heart is still beating, but it cannot deliver enough oxygen to meet the body’s needs. This condition requires emergency medical care. Heart failure signs and symptoms may include: Shortness of breath with activity or when lying down. Fatigue and weakness. Swelling in the legs, ankles and feet. Rapid or irregular heartbeat. Reduced ability to exercise. Persistent cough or wheezing with white or pink blood-tinged mucus. Swelling of the belly area (abdomen).
240) Cardiac Sarcoidosis
Is a rare inflammatory condition where groups of immune cells form granulomas in different areas of the heart which can cause issues from arrhythmia to heart failure. Our multidisciplinary team specializes in early, accurate diagnosis and providing treatment tailored to each patient’s lifestyle. Signs and symptoms related to cardiac sarcoidosis may include: Chest pain. Shortness of breath (dyspnea). Fainting (syncope).Fatigue. Irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) Rapid or fluttering heart beat (palpitations) Swelling caused by excess fluid (edema).
241) Cardiac Ventricular Thrombosis
Is a blood clot (thrombus) in the left ventricle of the heart. LVT is a common complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Left ventricular (LV) thrombus may develop after acute myocardial infarction (MI) and occurs most often with a large, anterior ST-elevation MI (STEMI). However, the use of reperfusion therapies, including percutaneous coronary intervention and fibrinolysis, has significantly reduced the risk.
242) Cardiogenic Shock
Is a life-threatening condition in which your heart suddenly can’t pump enough blood to meet your body’s needs. The condition is most often caused by a severe heart attack, but not everyone who has a heart attack has cardiogenic shock. Cardiogenic shock is rare. Most often the cause of cardiogenic shock is a serious heart attack. Other health problems that may lead to cardiogenic shock include heart failure, which happens when the heart can’t pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs; chest injuries; and blood clots in the lungs.
243) Cardiopulmonary Failure
Signs of sudden cardiac arrest are immediate and drastic and include: Sudden collapse. No pulse. No breathing. Sign: Chest pain or discomfort. Heart palpitations. Rapid or irregular heartbeats. Unexplained wheezing. Shortness of breath. Fainting or near fainting. Lightheadedness or dizziness.
244) Cardio-respiratory Distress
The major pathological physiologic disturbances producing respiratory distress (in association with heart disease) are pulmonary edema and severe metabolic acidosis. Pulmonary edema occurs either in left ventricular failure or in association with lesions resulting in an obstruction of the pulmonary venous return. Signs of Respiratory Distress: Breathing rate. An increase in the number of breaths per minute may mean that a person is having trouble breathing or not getting enough oxygen. Color changes. Grunting. Nose flaring. Retractions.Sweating.Wheezing. Body position.
245) Cardiovascular Insufficiency
Also known as heart failure, occurs when the heart cannot pump strongly enough to make sufficient blood reach the entire body. Heart failure signs and symptoms may include: Shortness of breath with activity or when lying down. Fatigue and weakness. Swelling in the legs, ankles and feet. Rapid or irregular heartbeat. Reduced ability to exercise. Persistent cough or wheezing with white or pink blood-tinged mucus. Swelling of the belly area (abdomen). Very rapid weight gain from fluid buildup. Nausea and lack of appetite.Difficulty concentrating or decreased alertness. Chest pain if heart failure is caused by a heart attack.
246) Carotid Arterial Embolus
A carotid embolism is a blood clot that is formed in the carotid arteries. You have two carotid arteries. They are the main arteries that supply blood and oxygen to your head and neck. Sometimes plaque that causes narrowing of the arteries can break away from the artery walls.Damage to the carotid wall activates platelets to produce a nonocclusive thrombus that showers the distal cerebral vasculature with emboli. Some of the emboli occlude distal cerebral vessels, restrict blood flow, and infarct the supplied tissue.
247) Carotid Artery Thrombosis
Background Thrombus within the carotid artery usually occurs in vessels with severe atherosclerotic disease and may embolize to cause transient ischemic attacks and cerebral infarctions. The risk factors for carotid artery thrombus formation in the absence of atherosclerosis are not well characterized. If a narrowed carotid artery is left untreated, blood flow to the brain may be affected. This is usually because the carotid artery becomes blocked or a blood clot forms and a piece breaks off and goes to the brain. This can result in either: a stroke – a serious medical condition that can cause brain damage or death.
Is a sudden loss of muscle control , typically on both sides of the body, triggered by strong, often pleasant emotions. It happens when your muscles suddenly go limp or significantly weaken without warning. You may experience cataplexy when you feel a strong emotion or emotional sensation. This can include crying, laughing, or feeling angry. You may find yourself falling over or losing control over your facial expressions.
249) Catheter Site Thrombosis
Is a relatively common complication of central venous catheter insertion. Symptoms of CRT include swelling, pain, redness, discoloration, and even cyanosis. Most patients with CRT are asymptomatic, even in the presence of an extensive, occlusive thrombus in the proximal veins. Some patients will complain of an ache in their shoulder or jaw without any other physical findings.
250) Catheter Site Vasculitis
There are three main access sites for the placement of central venous catheters. The internal jugular vein, common femoral vein, and subclavian veins are the preferred sites for temporary central venous catheter placement. Vasculitis is an inflammation of the blood vessels. It happens when the body’s immune system attacks the blood vessel by mistake. It can happen because of an infection, a medicine, or another disease.
251) Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis
Is a very rare, life-threatening condition that can affect adults and children. In cavernous sinus thrombosis, a blood clot blocks a vein that runs through a hollow space underneath the brain and behind the eye sockets. These veins carry blood from the face and head back to the heart. Symptoms of cavernous sinus thrombosis include: a sharp and severe headache, particularly around the eye, swelling and bulging of the eye(s) and the surrounding tissues, eye pain that’s often severe, double vision, a high temperature.
252) CDKL5 deficiency disorder
Is a genetic disorder that causes seizures , developmental delay , and severe intellectual disability . Seizures typically begin within a few months after birth and are difficult to control with medications. Most children have 1 to 5 seizures every day. The symptoms of CDD include early infantile onset refractory epilepsy; hypotonia; developmental, intellectual, and motor disabilities, with little or no speech; and cortical visual impairment.
253) CEC Syndrome
Also known as Gobbi syndrome, refers to the combination of celiac disease, epilepsy and bilateral occipital calcifications. Patients with cerebral calcifications and celiac disease without epilepsy are considered as having an incomplete form of CEC syndrome. Seizures associated with CEC syndrome are usually occipital in origin and of focal or complex partial type. They may present as paroxysmal visual manifestations such as blurred vision, loss of focus, visualised coloured dots, and brief stereotyped complex visual hallucinations.
254) Cement Embolism
Pulmonary cement embolism (PCE) is a feared complication of vertebroplasty in the treatment of vertebral fractures. While the majority of PCEs are asymptomatic, symptomatic PCEs often present with chest pain, tachycardia, signs of severe respiratory distress, and death.
255) Central Nervous System Lupus
Lupus can affect both the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system. Lupus may attack the nervous system via antibodies that bind to nerve cells or the blood vessels that feed them, or by interrupting the blood flow to nerves. In lupus, the immune system is over-active and produces increased amounts of abnormal antibodies that attack the body’s tissues and organs. Lupus can affect many parts of the body, including the joints, skin, kidneys, lungs, heart, nervous system, and blood vessels.
256) Central Nervous System Vasculitis
Means that blood vessel walls in the brain and spine are inflamed (swollen). This inflammation can be caused by a variety of conditions and illnesses. CNS vasculitis is serious but treatable. Symptoms of CNS vasculitis may include: New, severe headaches. Strokes or transient ischemic attacks (mini-strokes) Significant forgetfulness or confusion. Weakness, especially of the limbs. Loss of balance and gait disturbance. Vision loss. Seizures.
257) Cerebellar Artery Thrombosis
A cerebellar artery is an artery that provides blood to the cerebellum. Types include: Superior cerebellar artery. Anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The anterior inferior cerebellar artery supplies the middle cerebellar peduncle, lower lateral pons, anteroinferior surface of the cerebellum, flocculus and the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle. A blood clot, bleeding, or trauma can cause a cerebellar stroke. 3 The risk factors for a blood clot causing a cerebellar stroke are the same as the risk factors for any ischemic stroke in any part of the brain.
258) Cerebellar Embolism Symptoms
Is one of the less common types of strokes. It occurs when a blood vessel is blocked or bleeding, causing complete interruption to a portion of the cerebellum. This type of stroke typically affects only one side or section of the cerebellum. It’s also referred to as cerebellar stroke syndrome. The initial symptoms of cerebellar infarction or hemorrhage may be nonspecific such as headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and vertigo; >50% of cerebellar strokes present with nausea and vomiting, and ≈75% of them present with dizziness.
259) Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy
(CAA) is a condition in which proteins called amyloid build up on the walls of the arteries in the brain. CAA increases the risk for stroke caused by bleeding and dementia. These symptoms include: Drowsiness. Headache (usually in a certain part of the head). Nervous system changes that may start suddenly, including confusion, delirium, double vision, decreased vision, sensation changes, speech problems, weakness, or paralysis. Seizures. Stupor or coma (rarely). Vomiting.
260) Cerebral Artery Embolism
A cerebral embolism (often referred to as embolic stroke) occurs when a blood clot forms in another part of the body — often the heart or arteries in the upper chest and neck — and moves through the bloodstream until it hits an artery too narrow to let it pass. Symptoms: Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body. Sudden confusion. Sudden trouble speaking. Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes. Sudden trouble walking. Sudden dizziness, loss of balance or coordination. Sudden, severe headache with no known cause.
261) Cerebral Artery Thrombosis
Also referred to as ischemic stroke, cerebral artery thrombosis occurs as a result of a blocked artery in the brain. Human brain depends on its arteries to receive fresh blood from the heart and lungs. MCA strokes typically present with the symptoms individuals associate most commonly with strokes, such as unilateral weakness and/or numbness, facial droop, and speech deficits ranging from mild dysarthria and mild aphasia to global aphasia.
262) Cerebral Gas Embolism
(CVGE) is an equally dangerous variant of gas embolism with gas bubbles preferentially entering the cerebral venous circulation under certain circumstances, rather than following the flow of blood to the right side of the heart. Diagnosis of air embolism can often be missed when dyspnea, continuous coughing, chest pain, and a sense of “impending doom” make up the chief clinical symptoms. Corresponding clinical signs include cyanosis, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypotension, tachypnea, wheezing, bronchospasm, tachycardia, or bradycardia.
263) Cerebral Microembolism
A microembolism is a small particle, often a blood clot, that becomes caught while traveling through the bloodstream and can cause blockage in a blood vessel. Embolic strokes are usually caused by a blood clot that forms elsewhere in the body (embolus) and travels through the bloodstream to the brain. Embolic strokes often result from heart disease or heart surgery and occur rapidly and without any warning signs. A cerebral embolism is a blood clot (thrombus) that starts from the heart or blood vessel where the clot originates and stops in an artery that leads to or rests within the brain. The result is occlusion of the vessel and obstruction of the flow of oxygen and blood to the brain tissue supplied by that artery.
264) Cerebral Septic Infarct
Septic cerebral emboli could result in ischemic strokes due to infarction of the ischemic area, brain abscesses causing variable neurological deficits based on the location affected, and the extent of the damage. Septic cerebral emboli are also a risk factor for thrombolysis-related hemorrhagic transformation.
265) Cerebral Thrombosis
Collagen vascular diseases such as lupus, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and Behcet syndrome. Obesity. Low blood pressure in the brain (intracranial hypotension) Inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. Both conditions can make blood clot more easily, affecting proper blood flow throughout the body and the brain. In infants, the most common cause of CVT is infection, specifically in the ear. In some cases of CVT, the cause is unknown. If left untreated, CVT can have life-threatening consequences.
266) Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis
Occurs when a blood clot forms in the brain’s venous sinuses. This prevents blood from draining out of the brain. This prevents blood from draining out of the brain. As a result, blood cells may break and leak blood into the brain tissues, forming a hemorrhage. If you have CVST, respond quickly to symptoms like headaches, blurry vision, fainting, losing control of a part of your body, and seizures.
267) Cerebral Venous Thrombosis
Occurs when a blood clot forms in the brain’s venous sinuses. This prevents blood from draining out of the brain. As a result, blood cells may break and leak blood into the brain tissues, forming a hemorrhage. The symptoms: Headache (present in 90% of cases). Seizure(s). Nausea, vomiting. Weakness or impaired control of one side of the body, both sides of the body, or one leg or one arm. Difficulty speaking. Difficulty understanding language.
268) Cerebrospinal Thrombotic Tamponade
Cardiac tamponade, also known as pericardial tamponade, is the buildup of fluid in the pericardium (the sac around the heart), resulting in compression of the heart. Onset may be rapid or gradual. Symptoms typically include those of obstructive shock including shortness of breath, weakness, lightheadedness, and cough.
269) Cerebrovascular Accident
Is the medical term for a stroke. A stroke is when blood flow to a part of your brain is stopped either by a blockage or the rupture of a blood vessel. Cerebrovascular disease includes stroke, carotid stenosis, vertebral stenosis and intracranial stenosis, aneurysms, and vascular malformations. Restrictions in blood flow may occur from vessel narrowing (stenosis), clot formation (thrombosis), blockage (embolism) or blood vessel rupture (hemorrhage).
270) Change In Seizure Presentation
Seizures typically activate sympathetic nervous activity, increasing the heart rate and blood pressure, although parasympathetic activation or sympathetic inhibition may predominate during partial seizures. Many people with epilepsy can experience changes in the pattern, frequency and nature of their seizures.
271) Chest Discomfort
272) Child-Pugh-Turcotte Score Abnormal
The Child-Pugh score is a system for assessing the prognosis — including the required strength of treatment and necessity of liver transplant — of chronic liver disease, primarily cirrhosis. It provides a forecast of the increasing severity of your liver disease and your expected survival rate.
273) Child-Pugh-Turcotte Score Increased
In medicine, specifically gastroenterology, the Child–Pugh score is used to assess the prognosis of chronic liver disease, mainly cirrhosis. The Child-Pugh score is a system for assessing the prognosis — including the required strength of treatment and necessity of liver transplant — of chronic liver disease, primarily cirrhosis. It provides a forecast of the increasing severity of your liver disease and your expected survival rate.
(CHILL-blayns) are the painful inflammation of small blood vessels in your skin that occur in response to repeated exposure to cold but not freezing air. Also known as pernio, chilblains can cause itching, red patches, swelling and blistering on your hands and feet. Signs and symptoms of chilblains may include: Small, itchy red areas on your skin, often on your feet or hands. Possible blistering or skin ulcers. Swelling of your skin. Burning sensation on your skin. Changes in skin color from red to dark blue, accompanied by pain.
Is an obstruction in the process of breathing. Choking, as foreign body airway obstruction (FBAO), is a phenomenon that occurs when breathing is impeded by a blockage inside of the throat or windpipe, resulting in oxygen deprivation. The signs and symptoms of choking may vary according to the severity of the obstruction and the object itself: clutching at the throat, neck or throat pain, inability to speak, breathe or swallow, coughing, wheezing or other unususal breathing sounds, gagging, a change in colour (eg. blue lips or red face), chest pain.
276) Choking Sensation
Choking sensations can be caused by anxiety, especially severe anxiety. The most likely explanation for the choking sensation is hyper-sensitivity, which is a very common problem for those that suffer from anxiety attacks. Hypersensitivity is when you become too sensitive to the way your body feels, so that you start to notice physical sensations that someone without anxiety wouldn’t pay any attention to.
277) Cholangitis Sclerosing
(skluh-ROHS-ing) cholangitis (koh-lan-JIE-tis) is a disease of the bile ducts. Bile ducts carry the digestive liquid bile from your liver to your small intestine. In primary sclerosing cholangitis, inflammation causes scars within the bile ducts. The main symptoms of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are feeling tired or weak and having itchy skin. Other symptoms may include losing weight without trying, poor appetite, fever, and pain in the abdomen. The cause of PSC is not known.
278) Chronic Autoimmune Glomerulonephritis
In the disease autoimmune glomerulonephritis, the body’s own immune system attacks the blood vessels of the glomeruli, the part of the kidney that filters the blood. This condition is life-threatening, but current treatments are limited and carry a high risk of serious side-effects. Symptoms: Pink or cola-colored urine from red blood cells in your urine (hematuria). Foamy or bubbly urine due to excess protein in the urine (proteinuria). High blood pressure (hypertension). Fluid retention (edema) with swelling evident in your face, hands, feet and abdomen.Urinating less than usual. Nausea and vomiting.
279) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
(CFS) is a complicated disorder characterized by extreme fatigue that lasts for at least six months and that can’t be fully explained by an underlying medical condition. The fatigue worsens with physical or mental activity, but doesn’t improve with rest. People with ME/CFS often describe this experience as a “crash,” “relapse,” or “collapse.” During PEM, any ME/CFS symptoms may get worse or first appear, including difficulty thinking, problems sleeping, sore throat, headaches, feeling dizzy, or severe tiredness.
280) Chronic Gastritis
Is a long-term condition in which the mucus lined layer of the stomach, also known as the gastric mucosa, is inflamed or irritated over a longer period of time. Symptoms tend to appear slowly, over time. The symptoms: upper abdominal pain, indigestion, bloating, nausea, vomiting, belching, loss of appetite, weight loss.
281) Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy
(CIDP) is a slowly developing autoimmune disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks the myelin that insulates and protects the body’s nerves. The exact cause isn’t known. Common symptoms are gradual weakness or sensation changes in the arms or legs. Other symptoms include fatigue, pain, balance issues, and impairment of your ability to walk. Some people have described feeling as if there were an electrical storm in their arms or legs.
282) Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation With Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive To Steroids
Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a treatable inflammatory disease of the central nervous system . Specifically, it is a type of encephalomyelitis, which is a general term describing inflammation of the brain and spinal cord.
283) Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis
Is an autoinflammatory disorder of children and young adults that is characterized by nonbacterial osteomyelitis. Patients typically present with multifocal bone pain secondary to sterile osseous inflammation, and the disease has a relapsing and remitting course. Symptoms may include episodes of pain and joint swelling, skin redness, and sometimes a fever.
284) Chronic Respiratory Failure
Is a condition that results in the inability to effectively exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen, and induces chronically low oxygen levels or chronically high carbon dioxide levels. The symptoms: difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, especially when active. Coughing up mucous. Wheezing. Bluish tint to the skin, lips, or fingernails. Rapid breathing. Fatigue. Anxiety. Confusion.
285) Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria
Also called chronic idiopathic urticaria, is defined by the presence of urticaria (hives) on most days of the week, for a duration of six weeks or longer. Associated angioedema occurs in about 40 percent of patients. In about half of patients with chronic idiopathic hives, the explanation is that body’s immune system is, in a sense, overactive. The urticaria is “autoimmune”. The immune system is attacking the normal tissues of the body and causing hives as a result.
286) Circulatory Collapse
Is defined as a general or specific failure of the circulation, either cardiac or peripheral in nature. If you experience any of these signs and symptoms: Chest pain or discomfort. Heart palpitations. Rapid or irregular heartbeats.Unexplained wheezing. Shortness of breath. Fainting or near fainting. Lightheadedness or dizziness.
287) Circumoral Oedema
Swelling around mouth. The meaning of CIRCUMORAL is surrounding the mouth. Edema is swelling caused by excess fluid trapped in your body’s tissues.
288) Clinically Isolated Syndrome
Is the term used to describe your first episode of neurological symptoms that last for at least 24 hours and isn’t caused by anything else – such as a fever or infection. CIS can be the first sign of what may subsequently turn out to be multiple sclerosis. Symptoms: Numbness or tingling.Vision problems, such as double vision. Spasticity or stiffness of the muscles. Difficulty controlling the bladder or bowels. Difficulty with walking and coordination. Muscle weakness. Paralysis. Dizziness.
289) Coeliac Disease
Is a condition where your immune system attacks your own tissues when you eat gluten. This damages your gut (small intestine) so you are unable to take in nutrients. Coeliac disease can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhoea, abdominal pain and bloating. Symptoms: Diarrhea. Fatigue. Weight loss. Bloating and gas. Abdominal pain. Nausea and vomiting. Constipation.
290) Cogan’s Syndrome
Is a rare autoimmune disease that affects the eyes and inner ears. Symptoms of the syndrome include irritation and pain in the eyes, decreased vision, hearing loss , and vertigo. Other symptoms may include joint or muscle pain or inflammation of the blood vessels.
291) Cold Agglutinins Positive
A positive titer may mean that the person tested has cold agglutinin disease. Cold agglutinin disease may be primary or secondary, induced by some other disease or condition such as: Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections—up to 75% of those affected will have increased cold agglutinins.
292) Cold type Haemolytic Anaemia
Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) is a type of cold-induced autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The hemolysis is usually brisk and can be associated with severe pain in the back and legs, headache, vomiting, diarrhea and passage of dark brown urine (hemoglobinuria).
Is a chronic digestive disease characterized by inflammation of the inner lining of the colon. Infection, loss of blood supply in the colon, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and invasion of the colon wall with collagen or lymphocytic white blood cells are all possible causes of an inflamed colon. Diarrhea and bloody stools are the two most common initial symptoms of ulcerative colitis. People also often experience abdominal or rectal pain, weight loss, and fever.
294) Colitis Erosive
Colon erosions are small, shallow sores or ulcers on the lining of your colon, or large intestine. They’re often surrounded by a ring of red, inflamed tissue. They can also be irregular in shape, like long, ragged marks. You may hear these called rake ulcers or bear claw ulcers.
295) Colitis Herpes
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) colitis is very rare. Only a few cases have been reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), possibly simulating disease relapse. Herpes simplex virus colitis is potentially fatal complication of immunosuppressive treatment in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
296) Colitis Microscopic
Microscopic colitis is a type of inflammation of the colon, or large intestine, that can cause watery diarrhea and cramping. It can be painful and unpleasant. But in most cases, it’s much less severe than other types of inflammatory bowel disease. Some doctors suspect that microscopic colitis is an autoimmune disorder similar to the autoimmune disorders that cause chronic ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.
297) Colitis Ulcerative
Is a long-term condition where the colon and rectum become inflamed. The colon is the large intestine (bowel) and the rectum is the end of the bowel where stools are stored. Small ulcers can develop on the colon’s lining, and can bleed and produce pus.Diarrhea and bloody stools are the two most common initial symptoms of ulcerative colitis. People also often experience abdominal or rectal pain, weight loss, and fever.
298) Collagen Disorder
Is a term previously used to describe systemic autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and systemic sclerosis), but now is thought to be more appropriate for diseases associated with defects in collagen, which is a component of the connective tissue.
299) Collagen-vascular Disease
are autoimmune diseases that occur when the body’s immune system attacks its own skin, tissues and organs. Symptoms of Collagen Vascular Disease: Skin rash.Fatigue. Muscle weakness and aches. Joint pain. Fever. They may involve arthritis and inflammation of arteries in the tissues. People who developed these disorders were previously said to have “connective tissue” or “collagen vascular” disease. We now have names for many specific conditions such as: Ankylosing spondylitis.
300) Complement Factor Abnormal
Complement factor I deficiency is a disorder that affects the immune system. Complement factor I deficiency is a disorder that affects the immune system. People with this condition are prone to recurrent infections, including infections of the upper respiratory tract, ears, skin, and urinary tract. The complement pathway is a cascade of proteases that is involved in immune surveillance and innate immunity, as well as adaptive immunity.
301) Complement Factor C1 Decreased
Genetic deficiency has been identified for many complement proteins and, in most cases, this increases susceptibility to infections. The following symptoms (signs) are consistent with complement deficiency in general: Recurring infection. Auto-immune disorders. Glomerulonephritis. Joint problems (manifestation) Lung function (MBL variant alleles) Angioedema. Dermatomyositis. Vasculitis.
302) Complement Factor C2 Decreased
Is a genetic condition that affects the immune system . Signs and symptoms include recurrent bacterial infections and risk for a variety of autoimmune conditions. Infections can be very serious and are common in early life.Complement component 2 deficiency (C2D) is a genetic condition that affects the immune system . Signs and symptoms include recurrent bacterial infections and risk for a variety of autoimmune conditions. Infections can be very serious and are common in early life.
303) Complement Factor C3 Decreased
If your C3 and C4 levels are reduced, this may be a sign that you have lupus. With lupus, your total complement level may be slightly lower. Low C3 and C4 levels may also be a sign of alcoholic liver disease. Lower-than-normal levels of C3 proteins can be a sign of: An autoimmune disease such as psoriatic arthritis, Crohn’s disease, lupus or rheumatoid arthritis, or that you’re at a higher risk of developing an autoimmune disorder. C3 deficiency, which leads to recurring bacterial infections.
304) Complement Factor C4 Decreased
Low complement C4 levels under 15 milligrams per deciliter might indicate some types of health problems and conditions such as: Malnutrition. Lupus. Liver diseases such as hepatitis and cirrhosis.
305) Complement Factor Decreased
Is a disorder that affects the immune system. People with this condition are prone to recurrent infections, including infections of the upper respiratory tract, ears, skin, and urinary tract.
306) Computerised Tomogram Liver Abnormal
CT scans of the liver and biliary tract (the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts) can provide more detailed information about the liver, gallbladder, and related structures than standard X-rays of the abdomen, thus providing more information related to injuries and/or diseases of the liver and biliary tract.
307) Concentric Sclerosis
The term “concentric sclerosis” comes from a pattern of concentric (circular) areas of damaged myelin alternating with areas of relatively undamaged myelin in various parts of the brain and spinal cord. This pattern can be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
308) Congenital Anomaly
Congenital anomalies can be defined as structural or functional anomalies that occur during intrauterine life. Also called birth defects, congenital disorders, or congenital malformations, these conditions develop prenatally and may be identified before or at birth, or later in life.
309) Congenital Bilateral Perisylvian Syndrome
(CBPS) is an extremely rare, late migration disorder of the brain characterized by pseudobulbar palsy, mental retardation, epilepsy and bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria. This syndrome was originally described by Graff-Radford et al. in identical twins.
310) Congenital Herpes Simplex Infection
Congenital herpes simplex is an infection caused by exposure in the uterus. In most cases, babies contract congenital herpes in the birth canal during delivery, although in rare circumstances, it’s possible to be infected in the uterus or immediately after birth.
311) Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome
Is a group of conditions characterized by muscle weakness (myasthenia) that worsens with physical exertion. The muscle weakness typically begins in early childhood but can also appear in adolescence or adulthood. The most common symptoms of CMS include Muscle weakness that is brought on by activity or exercise. Eyelid drooping which can come and go. Facial and throat muscle weakness.Delay of motor development.
312) Congenital Varicella Infection
Congenital varicella syndrome is an extremely rare disorder in which affected infants have distinctive abnormalities at birth due to the mother’s infection with chickenpox (maternal varicella zoster) early during pregnancy (i.e., up to 20 weeks gestation).
313) Congestive Hepatopathy
Is diffuse venous congestion within the liver that results from right-sided heart failure (usually due to a cardiomyopathy, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral insufficiency, cor pulmonale, or constrictive pericarditis). Congestive hepatopathy is often asymptomatic, or the symptoms are masked by those of right heart failure. When symptomatic, patients often have a dull right upper quadrant pain. The liver may be enlarged and firm, and patients may experience malaise, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and early satiety.
314) Convulsion In Childhood
The most common type of seizure in children is from a fever (called a febrile seizure). Other causes include infections, low blood sodium, medicines, drug use (amphetamines or cocaine), brain injury or a tumor, and genetic changes. Sometimes, a seizure’s cause is never found. Symptoms of febrile convulsions loss of consciousness (black out) twitching or jerking of arms and legs. breathing difficulty. foaming at the mouth.
315) Convulsions Local
A condition in which muscles contract and relax quickly and cause uncontrolled shaking of the body. Head injuries, high fevers, some medical disorders, and certain drugs can cause convulsions. They may also occur during seizures caused by epilepsy.
316) Convulsive Threshold Lowered
Lowering the seizure threshold corresponds to a proconvulsant effect, whereas increasing the seizure threshold means an anticonvulsant effect. 2. Seizure severity is determined by a scoring system specifically developed for a particular type of seizures.
317) Coombs Positive Haemolytic Anaemia
The direct antiglobulin (Coombs) test detects antibody or complement on human RBC membranes. It is an essential test in the evaluation of hemolysis. Approximately 90% of patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia have a positive direct Coombs test result (warm agglutinin autoimmune hemolytic anemia).
318) Coronary Artery Disease
Is the buildup of plaque in the arteries that supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart. Plaque causes a narrowing or blockage that could result in a heart attack. Symptoms include chest pain or discomfort and shortness of breath.
319) Coronary Artery Embolism
Is a recognized entity, there is little morphologic information indicating it is a cause of myocardial infarction. The pressure of the pooling blood can make a short tear longer. Blood trapped between the layers can form a blood clot. SCAD can slow blood flow through the artery, which weakens the heart muscle. Or blood flow through the artery can stop, causing heart muscle to die (heart attack).
320) Coronary Artery Thrombosis
Occurs due to rupture or erosion of preexisting coronary artery plaque, resulting in the artery’s complete occlusion. It manifests clinically as an acute coronary syndrome, including ST-elevation MI, Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, and unstable angina. Symptoms of coronary thrombosis (a blood clot that forms in the heart) include severe pain in the chest and arm, sweating and trouble breathing.
321) Coronary Bypass Thrombosis
Thrombosis is a common complication of coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The thrombosis is classified as arterial thrombosis and venous thrombosis. Venous thrombosis is common, arterial thrombosis is rare. The main causes of venous thrombosis are vascular intimal injury and blood clotting disorders.
322) Corpus Callosotomy
Is a surgical procedure used to treat atonic seizures, also called drop attacks, by dividing all or part of the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum is the bundle of nerve fibers that connects the two brain hemispheres. Most people having a corpus callosotomy will be able to return to their normal activities, including work or school, in six to eight weeks after surgery. The hair next to the incision will grow back over the area and hide the surgical scar.
323) Cough Variant Asthma
Is a type of asthma in which the main symptom is a dry, non-productive cough. (A non-productive cough does not expel any mucus from the respiratory tract.) People with cough-variant asthma often have no other “classic” asthma symptoms, such as wheezing or shortness of breath. While people with asthma often experience a whistling or wheezing sound in the chest in addition to coughing, there is a form of asthma in which the only symptom is a chronic cough. This is known as cough-variant asthma.
324) Cranial Nerve Disorder
Refers to an impairment of one of the twelve cranial nerves that emerge from the underside of the brain, pass through openings in the skull, and lead to parts of the head, neck, and trunk. These disorders can cause pain, tingling, numbness, weakness, or paralysis of the face including the eyes. Individuals with a cranial nerve disorder may suffer from symptoms that include intense pain, vertigo, hearing loss, weakness or paralysis. These disorders can also affect smell, taste, facial expression, speech, swallowing, and muscles of the neck.
325) Cranial Nerve Palsies Multiple
Have many possible causes, including infective, inflammatory, neoplastic and infiltrative diseases of the meninges or skull base. The multiple cranial nerve palsy was defined as involvement of two or more non-homologous nerves. Patients of neuromuscular junction disorders, anterior horn cell disorders, myopathies, brain stem syndromes were excluded.
326) Cranial Nerve Paralysis
Is characterized by a decreased or complete loss of function of one or more cranial nerves. Cranial nerve palsies can be congenital or acquired. Multiple cranial neuropathies are commonly caused by tumors, trauma, ischemia. , or infections. Paralysis can occur if any part of the facial nerve, called the seventh cranial nerve, becomes inflamed or damaged. The facial nerve has branches throughout both sides of the face and controls many muscle groups, including those in the brow, eyelid, cheek, and lips.
327) CREST Syndrome
Also known as the limited cutaneous form of systemic sclerosis (lcSSc), is a multisystem connective tissue disorder. The acronym “CREST” refers to the five main features: calcinosis, Raynaud’s phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia. Signs and Symptoms: Small red spots on the hands, face, and upper trunk develop due to dilated tiny blood vessels. Spots may also occur on mucosal surfaces such as the lips and throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Spots may bleed.
328) Crohn’s Disease
Is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It causes inflammation of your digestive tract, which can lead to abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss and malnutrition. Inflammation caused by Crohn’s disease can involve different areas of the digestive tract in different people. The symptoms: Diarrhea. Pain and cramping in your abdomen. Weight loss. Bleeding from the rectum. Experiencing urgent needs to have bowel movements. A feeling that you haven’t emptied your bowels completely. Constipation.
Is believed to be an immune-mediated disorder (in which the immune system response to chronic infection causes damage to various tissues) or an autoimmune disorder (in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the body’s own tissue).
Is a rare disorder characterised by the presence of abnormal immunoglobulin proteins in the blood that can precipitate out into tissues at low temperatures and causing inflammation and damage. The causes cryoglobulinemia: Infection, particularly hepatitis C infection. Blood cell abnormalities such as lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Connective tissue disease such as lupus.
331) CSF Oligoclonal Band Present
An oligoclonal band is a protein called an immunoglobulin. The CSF oligoclonal band screen looks for these bands in your CSF. Their presence suggests inflammation of the central nervous system due to infection or another disease. If similar bands aren’t present in your blood, you may have multiple sclerosis (MS).
332) CSWS Syndrome
Ontinuous spikes and waves during sleep (CSWS) is a rare epileptic encephalopathy of childhood characterized by seizures , an electroencephalographic ( EEG ) pattern of electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) and neurocognitive regression in at least 2 domains of development.
333) Cutaneous Amyloidosis
The exact underlying cause of primary cutaneous amyloidosis is poorly understood. It is sometimes associated with other conditions such as atopic dermatitis, sarcoidosis, and psoriasis. Lichen amyloidosis is characterized by severely itchy patches of thickened skin with multiple small bumps. The patches are scaly and reddish brown in color. These patches usually occur on the shins but can also occur on the forearms, other parts of the legs, and elsewhere on the body.
334) Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus
Is lupus affecting the skin. In this autoimmune disease, the body’s immune system attacks healthy skin. The symtoms: Red, scaly areas of skin. They can be round, like a coin or a disk. Darker red rings or borders may outline the scaly patches.Rash that extends across the cheeks and over the bridge of the nose (butterfly rash). About 50% of people with lupus develop this type of rash.
335) Cutaneous Sarcoidosis
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterised by granulomas in various organs. Mostly painless, these bumps and growths tend to develop on the face or neck, and often appear around the eyes. You may see lesions that are skin-colored, red, reddish-brown, violet, or another color. When touched, most bumps and growths tend to feel hard.
336) Cutaneous Vasculitis
Refers to vasculitis affecting small or medium-sized vessels in the skin and subcutaneous tissue but not the internal organs. Cutaneous vasculitis may be limited to the skin, or maybe a component of a systemic primary or secondary vasculitic disorder. Purpura, petechiae, or ulcers may develop.
Common vasculitis skin lesions are: red or purple dots (petechiae), usually most numerous on the legs. larger spots, about the size of the end of a finger (purpura), some of which look like large bruises. Less common vasculitis lesions are hives, an itchy lumpy rash and painful or tender lumps.
Refers to a bluish cast to the skin and mucous membranes. A type known as peripheral cyanosis, or acrocyanosis, primarily affects the hands and feet. Sometimes cold temperatures can cause narrowing of the blood vessels and lead to blue-tinged skin. A mild case may be difficult to detect even in light-skinned people, so you might not notice the signs until the oxygen content of your blood drops significantly.
338) Cyclic Neutropenia
Is a rare blood disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of abnormally low levels of certain white blood cells (neutrophils) in the body. Neutrophils are instrumental in fighting off infection by surrounding and destroying bacteria that enter the body.
339) Cystitis Interstitial
Is a chronic condition causing bladder pressure, bladder pain and sometimes pelvic pain. The main symptoms of BPS (interstitial cystitis) include intense pelvic pain (felt over your lower tummy). sudden strong urges to pee, needing to pee more often than usual, pain in your lower tummy when your bladder is filling up, which is relieved when you pee, waking up several times during the night to pee.
340) Cytokine Release Syndrome
Is a collection of symptoms that can develop as a side effect of certain types of immunotherapy, especially those which involve T-cells. The syndrome occurs when immune cells are activated and release large amounts of cytokines into the body. Signs and symptoms of cytokine release syndrome include fever, nausea, headache, rash, rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and trouble breathing. Most patients have a mild reaction, but sometimes, the reaction may be severe or life threatening.
341) Cytokine Storm
Cytokine storm and cytokine release syndrome are life-threatening systemic inflammatory syndromes involving elevated levels of circulating cytokines and immune-cell hyperactivation that can be triggered by various therapies, pathogens, cancers, autoimmune conditions, and monogenic disorders.Normally, cytokines are part of the body’s immune response to infection, but their sudden release in large quantities can cause multisystem organ failure and death
342) Dermatitis Herpetiformis
Is a chronic, intensely itchy, blistering skin manifestation of gluten-sensitive enteropathy, commonly known as celiac disease. DH is a rash that affects about 10 percent of people with celiac disease. Dermatitis herpetiformis looks like a cluster of itchy bumps that can be easily confused with acne or eczema. Blisters can also form, and you could be misdiagnosed with herpes. Dermatitis herpetiformis commonly occurs on the: Knees.
Is an uncommon inflammatory disease marked by muscle weakness and a distinctive skin rash. In dermatomyositis, a distinctive reddish or purplish rash, presumably due to inflammation of surface blood vessels, may occur over the face, neck and chest; on the shoulders and upper back, resembling a shawl; and/or on the elbows, knees and ankles. The eyelids may appear as if eye shadow has been applied.
344) Device Embolisation
Is rare (less than 1 in 1000) and almost exclusively occurs when the device is erroneously deployed in the right or left atrium. Although the majority of device embolizations can be treated in a semielective manner, some are life threatening and require prompt intervention.
345) Device Related Thrombosis
The incidence of device-related thrombus (DRT) has been reported to range between 0% and 17.6%. There is limited evidence that correlates the presence of DRT with thromboembolic events, possibly because of the small number of patients in the studies and a low incidence of both DRT and clinical events.
346) Diabetes Mellitus
Is a disorder in which the body does not produce enough or respond normally to insulin, causing blood sugar (glucose) levels to be abnormally high. Urination and thirst are increased, and people may lose weight even if they are not trying to. Symptoms: Weight loss; Polydipsia.
347) Diabetic Ketoacidosis
(DKA) is a serious complication of diabetes that can be life-threatening. DKA is most common among people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA. DKA develops when your body doesn’t have enough insulin to allow blood sugar into your cells for use as energy. You have many signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis — excessive thirst, frequent urination, nausea and vomiting, stomach pain, weakness or fatigue, shortness of breath, fruity-scented breath, and confusion.
348) Diabetic Mastopathy
Is a condition characterized by the presence of a benign tumor like breast masses in women with long-standing type 1 or type 2 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The condition has also been reported in men. A similar condition is lymphocytic mastitis but this occurs in non-diabetics.Common symptoms of diabetic mastopathy include hard, irregular, easily movable, discrete, painless breast mass(es). This condition can involve one or both breasts and can affect males and females. The breast lesions may not be palpable in some individuals.
349) Dialysis Amyloidosis
Is a disabling disease characterized by accumulation and tissue deposition of amyloid fibrils consisting of beta2-microglobulin (beta2-m) in the bone, periarticular structures, and viscera of patients with chronic kidney disease. Dialysis doesn’t remove enough of a protein called beta-2 microglobulin from the blood. Over time, this protein can build up and deposit in bones, joints, and tendons, leading to dialysis-related amyloidosis.
350) Dialysis Membrane reaction
A dialysis membrane is a semi-permeable film (usually a sheet of regenerated cellulose) containing various sized pores. Molecules larger than the pores cannot pass through the membrane but small molecules can do so freely. Dialyzer reactions refer to all of the abnormal sequelae resulting from the interaction between blood constituents and the hemodialysis membrane.
351) Diastolic Hypotension
A diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of somewhere between 60 and 90 mm Hg is good in older people. Causes of low DBP include bed rest, dehydration, loss of water, alcohol use, hormone deficiencies, allergic reactions, nutritional deficiencies and prolonged standing leading to blood pooling in the legs.Symptoms of low diastolic blood pressure along with low systolic blood pressure (hypotension) include: dizziness, fainting (syncope),frequent falls, tiredness, nausea, blurred vision.
352) Diffuse Vasculitis
Vasculitis is a general term for several conditions that cause inflammation in your blood vessels. Vasculitis distribution may be unifocal or multifocal (diffuse) within an organ.
353) Digital Pitting scar
Are associated with a severe disease course and death in systemic sclerosis: a study from the EUSTAR cohort. The digital pitting scar is a common clinical feature in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). Its pathogenesis is unclear, but it may result in small ulcerations. The clinical and histological features of these lesions are poorly understood.
354) Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
Is a rare and serious condition that disrupts your blood flow. It is a blood clotting disorder that can turn into uncontrollable bleeding. DIC can affect people who have cancer or sepsis. Pain, redness, warmth, and swelling in the lower leg if blood clots form in the deep veins of your leg. Headaches, speech changes, paralysis (an inability to move), dizziness, and trouble speaking and understanding if blood clots form in the blood vessels in your brain.
355) Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation In Newborn
(DIC) is uncontrolled, simultaneous bleeding and clotting occurring as a secondary disorder in sick neonates. Knowledge of the complex physiologic mechanisms at work to maintain hemostasis contributes to the proper nursing care of infants at risk for DIC and better outcomes. Veldman et al. suggested that DIC in neonates is caused by prenatal risk factors, such as placental abruption (PA), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), and neonatal factors such as sepsis, asphyxia and intravascular hemorrhage (IVH) . Especially at birth, asphyxia was noteworthy in these cases.
356) Disseminated Neonatal Herpes Simplex
When multiple regions of skin and/or internal viscera are concomitantly infected, the disease is termed disseminated HSV. Clinically, disseminated HSV presents as a widespread eruption of vesicles, pustules, and/or erosions. Constitutional symptoms often occur and commonly consist of fever and regional lymphadenopathy.
357) Disseminated Varicella
Visceral disseminated VZV (VDVZV) infection is a rare disease with a high mortality rate that occurs in immunocompromised patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy for blood diseases, kidney transplant recipients, patients with uncontrolled diabetes, and patients with collagen and/or kidney diseases.
358) Disseminated Varicella Zoster Vaccine Virus Infection
Disseminated VZV infection is a rare but potentially lethal complication of vaccination with the live attenuated zoster vaccine. When considering live vaccine administration in immunocompromised patients, caution should be taken, and expert consultation may be required. Varicella-zoster is the virus that causes varicella (chicken pox), herpes zoster (shingles), and rarely, severe disseminated disease including diffuse rash, encephalitis, hepatitis, and pneumonitis. Disseminated disease is most often seen in immunocompromised patients.
359) Disseminated Varicella Zoster Virus Infection
Varicella-zoster is the virus that causes varicella (chicken pox), herpes zoster (shingles), and rarely, severe disseminated disease including diffuse rash, encephalitis, hepatitis, and pneumonitis. Disseminated disease is most often seen in immunocompromised patients.
360) DNA Antibody Positive
A high level of anti-dsDNA in the blood is strongly associated with lupus and is often significantly increased during or just prior to a flare-up. When the anti-dsDNA is positive and the person tested has other clinical signs and symptoms associated with lupus, it means that the person tested likely has lupus.
361) Double Cortex Syndrome
The majority of cases are linked to abnormalities in DCX. Mutations in DCX gene are associated with an X-linked neuronal migration disorder in which females have a double cortex and males have lissencephaly. This gene encodes a protein, doublecortin, expressed by migrating neurons. The cerebral cortex is composed of multiple neuronal types and this complex organization is crucial for cognitive functions that define us as human.
362) Double Stranded DNA Antibody Positive
When the anti-dsDNA is positive and the person tested has other clinical signs and symptoms associated with lupus, it means that the person tested likely has lupus. This is especially true if an anti-Sm test is also positive.
363) Dreamy State
A brief altered state of consciousness similar to a dream, during which the individual experiences visual, olfactory, or auditory hallucinations. The ‘dreamy state’ refers to a sensation of déjà vécu and/or complex visual hallucinations (e.g. of scenes, faces or people) and sensation of ‘strangeness’. Jackson localized this in the mesial temporal lobe (MTL).
364) Dressler’s Syndrome
Is a secondary form of pericarditis that occurs in the setting of injury to the heart or the pericardium (the outer lining of the heart). It consists of fever, pleuritic pain, pericarditis and/or a pericardial effusion. The symptoms of Dressler’s Syndrome: Fatigue.Weakness.Fever.Chest pain (worse with breathing or lying down, can be felt in the chest, upper back or left shoulder, can be made worse by activity).Difficult or labored breathing (dyspnea). Rapid heartbeat (tachycardia) or heart palpitations.
365) Drop Attacks
Are sudden spontaneous falls while standing or walking, with complete recovery in seconds or minutes. The term “drop attack” is used to categorize otherwise unexplained falls from a wide variety of causes and is considered ambiguous medical terminology; drop attacks are currently reported much less often than in the past, possibly as a result of better diagnostic precision.By definition, drop attacks exclude syncopal falls (fainting), which involve short loss of consciousness.
366) Drug Withdrawal Convulsions
Symptoms usually resolve within 10 days, but those days can be very precarious, especially as the symptoms peak (typically between 36 and 72 hours of quitting). Within 12 hours, a person may experience withdrawal symptoms that include: Anxiety.
Also known as shortness of breath or breathlessness, is a subjective awareness of the sensation of uncomfortable breathing. It may be of physiological, pathological or social origin. The symptoms of dyspnea: heart palpitations, weight loss, crackling in the lungs, wheezing, night sweats, swollen feet and ankles, labored breathing when lying flat, high fever.
368) Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy With Burst-suppression
Is a neurological disorder characterized by seizures . The disorder affects newborns, usually within the first three months of life (most often within the first 10 days) in the form of epileptic seizures.
Is a severe complication of preeclampsia. It’s a rare but serious condition where high blood pressure results in seizures during pregnancy. Seizures are periods of disturbed brain activity that can cause episodes of staring, decreased alertness, and convulsions (violent shaking). The condition follows a high blood pressure disorder called preeclampsia.
370) Eczema Herpeticum
Is a rare and serious skin infection caused by one of the herpes viruses. It causes a blistery, painful skin rash. It most often affects children who have eczema. It is often confused with other skin infections. It should be treated as soon as possible to avoid complications. Eczema herpeticum is a contagious infection that can spread through direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected individual, even if the infected individual does not have a current outbreak.
371) Embolia cutis medicamentosa
Is a rare, still unexplained complication of injection of several drugs, characterized by cutaneous, subcutaneous and even muscular aseptic necrosis in a livedoid pattern. Symptoms consist of immediate local pain, edema and cutaneous, subcutaneous and even muscular necrosis occurring in the first 48 h. The type of treatment depends mostly on time of diagnosis. A medical resolution can be achieved through heparin and cortisone injections within the first 48 h.
372) Embolic Cerebellar Infarction
A cerebellar stroke is often caused by a blood clot that obstructs blood flow to the cerebellum. Blood clots can form in your blood vessels or travel from other parts of the body — such as the heart or the neck — until it becomes trapped in blood vessels leading to the cerebellum. The initial symptoms of cerebellar infarction or hemorrhage may be nonspecific such as headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and vertigo; >50% of cerebellar strokes present with nausea and vomiting, and ≈75% of them present with dizziness.
373) Embolic Cerebral Infarction
A cerebral infarction (also known as a stroke) refers to damage to tissues in the brain due to a loss of oxygen to the area. The mention of “arteriosclerotic cerebrovascular disease” refers to arteriosclerosis, or “hardening of the arteries” that supply oxygen-containing blood to the brain. The main symptoms of embolic strokes are: Dizziness. Loss of orientation in space. Vomiting.Convulsions.Impaired coordination, speech, vision, writing, reading, and swallowing.
374) Embolic Pneumonia
The aetiologic agent producing metastatic embolic pneumonia reaches the lungs via the bloodstream and can affect the entire lung, producing focal lesions 1-2 mm in diameter.Pulmonary embolism (PE) occurs when a blood clot gets lodged in an artery in the lung, blocking blood flow to part of the lung.
375) Embolic Stroke
Occurs when a blood clot that forms elsewhere in the body breaks loose and travels to the brain via the bloodstream. The main symptoms of embolic strokes are: Dizziness. Loss of orientation in space.Vomiting.Convulsions.Impaired coordination, speech, vision, writing, reading, and swallowing.
Is a blocked artery caused by a foreign body, such as a blood clot or an air bubble. The body’s tissues and organs need oxygen, which is transported around the body in the bloodstream. When a blood clot gets caught in one of the arteries that go from the heart to the lungs, it’s called a pulmonary embolism (PE). The clot blocks the normal flow of blood. This blockage can cause serious problems, like damage to your lungs and low oxygen levels in your blood.
377) Embolism Arterial
Is a sudden interruption of blood flow to an organ or body part due to an embolus adhering to the wall of an artery blocking the flow of blood, the major type of embolus being a blood clot (thromboembolism). A common source for an embolus is from areas of hardening (atherosclerosis) in the aorta and other large blood vessels. These clots can break loose and flow down to the legs and feet. Symptoms of an arterial embolism in the arms or legs may include: Cold arm or leg. Decreased or no pulse in an arm or leg. Lack of movement in the arm or leg. Pain in the affected area. Numbness and tingling in the arm or leg. Pale color of the arm or leg (pallor). Weakness of an arm or leg.
378) Embolism Venous
(VTE), a term referring to blood clots in the veins, is an underdiagnosed and serious, yet preventable medical condition that can cause disability and death. the first signs of a blood clot: Arms, Legs swelling. This can happen in the exact spot where the blood clot forms, or your entire leg or arm could puff up. Change in color. You might notice that your arm or leg takes on a red or bluetinge, or gets or itchy. Pain.Warm skin.Trouble breathing.Lower leg cramp.Pitting edema.Swollen, painful veins.
Is inflammation of the brain. There are several causes, but the most common is a viral infection. Encephalitis often causes only mild flu-like signs and symptoms — such as a fever or headache — or no symptoms at all. Sometimes the flu-like symptoms are more severe. The symptoms of encephalitis: Headache.Mild flu-like symptoms (aches, fatigue, slight fever) Sensitivity to light. Neck stiffness. Sleepiness or lethargy. Increased irritability. Seizures. Changes in alertness, confusion, or hallucinations.
380) Encephalitis Allergic
Is an inflammatory and degenerative disorder of the central nervous system of certain susceptible animals which is produced by the parenteral injection of sterile emulsion of brain tissue. The symptoms of encephalitis: Headache. Mild flu-like symptoms (aches, fatigue, slight fever). Sensitivity to light. Neck stiffness. Sleepiness or lethargy. Increased irritability. Seizures. Changes in alertness, confusion, or hallucinations.
381) Encephalitis Autoimmune
Autoimmune encephalitis causes subacute deficits of memory and cognition, often followed by suppressed level of consciousness or coma. Neurologic symptoms may include impaired memory and cognition, abnormal movements, seizures , and/or problems with balance, speech, or vision. Psychiatric symptoms may include psychosis, aggression, inappropriate sexual behaviors, panic attacks, compulsive behaviors, euphoria or fear.
382) Encephalitis Brain stem
Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE) is a rare, autoimmune disease of the peripheral and central nervous system (i.e., brainstem). BBE is considered a variant of other immune-mediated polyneuropathies, such as Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). Brainstem encephalitis refers to inflammatory diseases affecting the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The causes of brainstem encephalitis include infections, autoimmune diseases, and paraneoplastic syndromes. Listeria is a common etiology of infectious rhombencephalitis
383) Encephalitis Hemorrhagic
Is believed to be a postinfectious process that is a severe variant of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and has been described in other viral respiratory infections such as H1N1 Influenza.
384) Encephalitis Post Immunisation
Is postvaccinal complication which was associated with vaccination with vaccinia virus during worldwide smallpox eradication campaign. With mortality ranging between 25 – 30% and lifelong consequences between 16 – 30% it was one of the most severe adverse events associated with this vaccination. PVE symptoms start to appear between 8th and 14th day after vaccination. Amongst the first are fever, headache, confusion and nausea. With passing time lethargy, seizures, short and long term memory dysfunctions, localized paralysis, hemiplegia, polyneuritis and convulsions. In extreme cases PVE can lead to coma and death.
Is inflammation of the brain and spinal cord. Various types of encephalomyelitis include: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis or postinfectious encephalomyelitis, a demyelinating disease of the brain and spinal cord, possibly triggered by viral infection.
Means damage or disease that affects the brain. It happens when there’s been a change in the way your brain works or a change in your body that affects your brain. Those changes lead to an altered mental state, leaving you confused and not acting like you usually do.
387) Endocrine Disorder
Results from the improper function of the endocrine system, which includes the glands that secrete hormones, the receptors that respond to hormones and the organs that are directly impacted by hormones. At any one of these points, dysfunction can occur and cause wide-ranging effects on the body. Common endocrine disorders: Diabetes. Diabetes is a condition that causes high blood glucose levels due to the body being unable to either produce or use insulin sufficiently to regulate glucose.Hyperthyroidism.Hypothyroidism. Cushing’s syndrome. Acromegaly. PCOS.
388) Endocrine Ophthalmopathy
Endocrine ophthalmopathy is defined as an inflammatory process of the eyes which leads to soft tissue involvement (periorbital edema, congestion, and swelling of the conjunctiva), proptosis (anterior deplacement of the eye), extraocular muscle involvement leading to double-vision (diplopia), corneal lesions, and compression of the optic nerve.
389) Endotracheal Intubation
Is a medical procedure in which a tube is placed into the windpipe (trachea) through the mouth or nose. In most emergency situations, it is placed through the mouth. Make sure you call your doctor right away if you’re showing any of the following symptoms: Swelling of your face. A severe sore throat. Chest pain. Difficulty swallowing. Difficulty speaking. Neck pain. Shortness of breath.
Is the inflammation of your small intestine. In some cases, the inflammation can also involve the stomach (gastritis) and large intestine (colitis). There are various types of enteritis. The most common are: viral or bacterial infection. Symptoms: Abdominal pain; Fever; Diarrhea. Enteritis is most often caused by eating or drinking things that are contaminated with bacteria or viruses. The germs settle in the small intestine and cause inflammation and swelling. Enteritis may also be caused by: An autoimmune condition, such as Crohn disease.
Is an inflammation that occurs in a person’s digestive tract. The condition specifically affects the inner linings of both the small intestine and the colon, causing several symptoms. Enterocolitis may be caused by a variety of infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.
392) Enteropathic Spondylitis
EA is a form of chronic, inflammatory arthritis associated with the occurrence of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the two best-known types of which are ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Enteropathic arthritis can affect the peripheral (limb) joints in the lower body (ankles, knees, hips) and occasionally the wrists and elbows. This presentation can cause acute (quick onset) pain and joints that flare. Flares of joint pain often happen around the same time the bowel disease flares.
Is a form of agranulocytosis where the number of eosinophil granulocytes is lower than expected. Leukocytosis with eosinopenia can be a predictor of bacterial infection. It can be induced by stress reactions, Cushing’s syndrome, or the use of steroids. Pathological causes include burns and acute infections. Symptoms: Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia). Food getting stuck in the esophagus after swallowing (impaction). Chest pain that is often centrally located and does not respond to antacids. Backflow of undigested food (regurgitation).
394) Eosinophilic Fasciitis
Is a syndrome in which tissue under the skin and over the muscle, called fascia, becomes swollen, inflamed and thick. The skin on the arms, legs, neck, abdomen or feet can swell quickly. The condition is very rare. EF may look similar to scleroderma, but is not related. Eosinophilic fasciitis can be associated with or progress to morphoea or other autoimmune connective tissue disorders in 20–30% of cases.
395) Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis
Is a disease caused by inflammation (swelling) that occurs in certain types of cells in your blood or in your tissues. Everyone who gets EGPA has a history of asthma and/or allergies. It can affect many of your organs. Phases include upper respiratory symptoms and wheezing, eosinophilic pneumonia and gastroenteritis, and life-threatening vasculitis. Phases may occur in or out of order and may overlap.
396) Eosinophilic Oesophagitis
Is a chronic immune system disease in which a type of white blood cell (eosinophil) builds up in the lining of the tube that connects your mouth to your stomach (esophagus). Symptoms of EoE vary from person to person and may include: Trouble swallowing. Chest pain or heartburn. Abdominal pain. Vomiting. Food getting stuck in the throat due to narrowing (this is a medical emergency). Stunted growth or poor weight gain in children.
Is the name for a group of rare inherited skin disorders that cause the skin to become very fragile. Any trauma or friction to the skin can cause painful blisters. The signs and symptoms of epidermolysis bullosa (EB): Simplex: Blisters develop on the top layer of skin and rarely scar. Junctional: Blisters form in the mouth and airway. Dystrophic: Blisters grow in the dermis (lower layer of skin). Kindler syndrome: Blisters can form in all skin layers.
Is a common condition that affects the brain and causes frequent seizures. Seizures are bursts of electrical activity in the brain that temporarily affect how it works. They can cause a wide range of symptoms.Symptoms: Temporary confusion—often described as a “fuzzy” feeling. A staring spell. Uncontrollable jerking movements of the arms and legs. Loss of consciousness or awareness. Psychic symptoms—out-of-body feelings or not feeling “in the moment”. Memory lapses.
399) Epilepsy Surgery
Is a procedure that removes an area of the brain where seizures occur. Epilepsy surgery is most effective when seizures always occur in a single location in the brain. Possible risks of this type of surgery include problems with memory, a partial loss of sight, depression or other mood problems. These risks will vary from person to person, and may be only temporary in some cases. For some people, their memory and mood could improve after epilepsy surgery.
400) Epilepsy With Myoclonic-Atonic Seizures
Is a rare epilepsy syndrome of early childhood. It is characterized by seizures of many different types, most often myoclonic–atonic, astatic, or generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Seizures can be followed by drop attacks, which can lead to falls and injuries. A myoclonic seizure will look like they are shaking or jerking. The seizures often occur in the neck, the shoulders, the upper arms or the face. The person stays conscious and aware whilst the seizures are happening, and can normally carry on with what they were doing after the seizures finish.
401) Epileptic Aura
A seizure aura is caused by changes in brain activity that affect your senses but are not associated with anything in your immediate environment. This unusual brain activity can cause you to see, feel, hear, smell, taste, or perceive things that aren’t there. They might include changes to your thoughts, senses, or awareness like: Flashing or flickering lights, blurry vision, dark spots, partial vision loss, or seeing things that aren’t there. A feeling of deja vu, panic, or detachment. Hearing voices or buzzing, ringing, or drumming sounds.
402) Epileptic Psychosis
Reflect a fundamental disruption in the fidelity of mind and occur during seizure freedom or during or after seizures. The psychotic symptoms in epilepsy share some qualities with schizophrenic psychosis, such as positive symptoms of paranoid delusions and hallucinations. probably contributes to the development of psychosis in some patients. Risk factors for interictal psychosis include early age at onset of epilepsy, female sex, severe epilepsy, left-sided temporal lobe focus, and a structural brain lesion.
Is redness of the skin caused by injury or another inflammation-causing condition. Often presenting as a rash, erythema can be caused by environmental factors, infection, or overexposure to the sun (ie, sunburn). It occurs with any skin injury, infection, or inflammation. Examples of erythema not associated with pathology include nervous blushes.
404) Erythema Induratum
Is a panniculitis on the calves. It occurs mainly in women, but it is very rare now. Historically, when it has occurred, it has often been concomitant with cutaneous tuberculosis, and it was formerly thought to be always a reaction to the TB bacteria. Erythema induratum is clinically characterized by tender, erythematous, violaceous nodules, and plaques that are typically seen on the posterior aspect of lower legs, in particular, the calves.
405) Erythema Multiforme
Is a skin reaction that can be triggered by an infection or some medicines. It’s usually mild and goes away in a few weeks. There’s also a rare, severe form that can affect the mouth, genitals and eyes and can be life-threatening. This is known as erythema multiforme major. Most often, this disorder is caused by the herpes simplex virus. It has also been associated with Mycoplasma pnemoniae as well as fungal infections.
406) Erythema Nodosum
Is a type of skin inflammation that is located in a part of the fatty layer of skin. Erythema nodosum results in reddish, painful, tender lumps most commonly located in the front of the legs below the knees. The tender lumps, or nodules, of erythema nodosum range in size from a dime to a quarter. Erythema nodosum is a type of panniculitis. Panniculitis occurs when there is inflammation of the layer of fat lying underneath the skin. The inflammation causes red rounded lumps (nodules) to form just below the skin surface, which are tender.
407) Evans Syndrome
Is a rare disorder in which the body’s immune system produces antibodies that mistakenly destroy red blood cells, platelets and sometimes certain white blood cell known as neutrophils. This leads to abnormally low levels of these blood cells in the body (cytopenia). Low levels of red blood cells due to Evans disease may cause anemia. Anemia means that the body does not have enough red blood cells to get oxygen to the organs and tissues.
408) Exanthema Subitum
Roseola infantum (exanthema subitum, “sudden rash,” sixth disease, rose rash of infants, 3-day fever) is caused primarily by human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), which is epidemiologically and biologically similar to cytomegalovirus. It has an incubation period (from time of exposure to the virus to symptom development) from about five to 14 days. The individual remains contagious until one or two days after the fever subsides. The roseola rash may still be present, but the child or individual is usually not contagious after the fever abates.
409) Expanded Disability Status Scale Score Decreased
Is a way of measuring how much someone is affected by their MS. The EDSS scale ranges from 0 to 10 in 0.5 unit increments that represent higher levels of disability. Scoring is based on an examination by a neurologist. EDSS steps 1.0 to 4.5 refer to people with MS who are able to walk without any aid and is based on measures of impairment in eight functional systems.
410) Expanded Disability Status Scale Score Increased
Scoring is based on an examination by a neurologist. EDSS steps 1.0 to 4.5 refer to people with MS who are able to walk without any aid and is based on measures of impairment in eight functional systems (FS): pyramidal – muscle weakness or difficulty moving limbs.
411) Exposure To Communicable Disease
Infectious diseases may be transmitted through a number of means, including but not limited to blood, saliva and other bodily fluids. If in the course of employment, a worker is exposed to an infectious disease, rapid medical treatment may be required to prevent infection. Some potential symptoms include fever or chills, stuffy or runny nose, sore throat, cough, headaches. muscle or body aches, fatigue.
412) Exposure To Sars-Cov-2
The most likely ecological reservoirs for SARS-CoV-2 are bats, but it is believed that the virus jumped the species barrier to humans from another intermediate animal host. This intermediate animal host could be a domestic food animal, a wild animal, or a domesticated wild animal which has not yet been identified.
413) Eye Oedema
Occurs when blood vessels in the light sensitive part of your eye (the retina) leak. The part of your eye responsible for central vision and detail (the macula) then swells up. This can cause permanent sight loss if untreated. Periorbital edema is a term for swelling around the eyes. The area around the eyes is called the eye socket or eye orbit.
414) Eye Pruritus
Itchy eyes, also known as ocular pruritis, are a very common problem. Itchy eyes are usually caused by an allergy or by a condition called dry eye syndrome. You might also have itchy eyelids, usually at the base of the eyelashes, and your eyes and/or eyelids might be swollen.
415) Eye Swelling
A swollen eyelid is a very common symptom, and is usually due to allergy, inflammation, infection or injury. The skin of your eyelid is less than 1 mm thick but it is loose and stretchy, so your eyelid is capable of swelling quite dramatically.
416) Eyelid Oedema
Periorbital edema is a term for swelling around the eyes. The area around the eyes is called the eye socket or eye orbit. Sometimes people refer to this condition as periorbital puffiness or puffy eyes. You can have periorbital edema in just one eye or both at the same time. Inflammation (due to allergy, infection, or injury), infection and trauma can all cause swelling of the eyelids. In come cases swelling of the eyelid may be the only symptom, but in others the eyelid is also likely to be red, itchy, gritty or sore.
417) Face Oedema
Facial swelling is puffiness caused by inflammation of facial tissue. Also known as facial edema, a puffy face is the result of an abnormally large buildup of fluid in your face, which occurs directly under the skin within your tissues.
418) Facial Paralysis
An inability to move the muscles of the face on one or both sides is known as facial paralysis. Facial paralysis can result from nerve damage due to congenital (present at birth) conditions, trauma or disease, such as stroke, brain tumor or Bell’s palsy. The greatest danger of facial paralysis is possible eye damage. Bell’s palsy often keeps one or both eyelids from closing fully. When the eye can’t blink normally, the cornea may dry out, and particles may enter and damage the eye.
419) Facial Paresis
Refers to the paralysis of muscles that are activated (innervated) by the facial nerve. The paralysis is usually on one side, and affects movements of the forehead, the eye, the nose, and the mouth. The symptoms of facial paralysis : facial paralysis on one side (rarely are both sides of the face affected), loss of blinking control on the affected side, decreased tearing, drooping of the mouth to the affected side, altered sense of taste, slurred speech, drooling, pain in or behind the ear.
420) Faciobrachial Dystonic Seizure
(FBDS) is a rare form of epilepsy characterized by frequent brief seizures, which primarily affect the arm and face. It has been described as the pathognomonic semiology for autoimmune limbic encephalitis (ALE). is a rare form of epilepsy characterized by frequent brief seizures, which primarily affect the arm and face. It has been described as the pathognomonic semiology for autoimmune limbic encephalitis.
421) Fat Embolism
Is a piece of intravascular fat that lodges within a blood vessel and causes a blockage of blood flow. Fat emboli commonly occur after fractures to the long bones of the lower body, particularly the femur (thighbone), tibia (shinbone), and pelvis. Symptoms of fat embolism syndrome: rapid breathing. shortness of breath. mental confusion. lethargy.
422) Febrile Convulsion
Is a fit or seizure that occurs in children aged between 6 months and 6 years when they have a high fever. A febrile convulsion is not epilepsy and a short-lived fit will not cause brain damage – even a long fit almost never causes harm. The symptoms of febrile convulsions include: loss of consciousness (black out), twitching or jerking of arms and legs, breathing difficulty, foaming at the mouth, going pale or bluish in skin colour, eye rolling, so only the whites of their eyes are visible, your child may take 10 to 15 minutes to wake up properly afterwards.
423) Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome
Is a catastrophic epileptic syndrome that strikes previously healthy children aged 3-15 years and has an unknown pathogenesis and few treatments. These children experience a nonspecific febrile illness that is followed by prolonged refractory status epilepticus.
424) Febrile Neutropenia
Refers to the occurrence of a fever during a period of significant neutropenia. When a patient has neutropenia, his or her risk of infection may be higher than normal, and the severity of a given infection may be higher also. Signs and symptoms of neutropenia: A fever, which is a temperature of 100.5°F (38°C) or higher. Chills or sweating. Sore throat, sores in the mouth, or a toothache.Abdominal pain. Pain near the anus.Pain or burning when urinating, or urinating often.Diarrhea or sores around the anus.A cough or shortness of breath.
425) Felty’s Syndrome
Is a rare, potentially serious disorder that is defined by the presence of three conditions: rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an enlarged spleen (splenomegaly) and a decreased white blood cell count (neutropenia), which causes repeated infections. FS) is rare autoimmune disease characterized by the triad of rheumatoid arthritis, enlargement of the spleen and low neutrophil count.
426) Femoral Artery Embolism
Is a blood clot that has travelled through your arteries and become stuck. This can block or restrict blood flow. Clots generally affect the arms, legs, or feet. Symptoms: Cold arm or leg. Decreased or no pulse in an arm or leg. Lack of movement in the arm or leg. Pain in the affected area.Numbness and tingling in the arm or leg. Pale color of the arm or leg (pallor). Weakness of an arm or leg.
427) Fibrillary Glomerulonephritis
Is an uncommon kidney disease of the glomerulus, the site where waste is filtered from the body. Unusual fibril proteins plug the glomerulus, causing it to become inflamed. The most common symptoms of fibrillary glomerulonephritis include: Blood in the urine (hematuria). Protein in the urine (proteinuria) causing it to look “foamy”. Decreased kidney function (renal insufficiency). High blood pressure (hypertension).
Is a condition that causes pain all over the body (also referred to as widespread pain), sleep problems, fatigue, and often emotional and mental distress. People with fibromyalgia may be more sensitive to pain than people without fibromyalgia. Main signs and symptoms: fatigue, lack of energy, trouble sleeping, depression or anxiety, memory problems and trouble concentrating (sometimes called “fibro fog”), headaches, muscle twitches or cramps, numbness or tingling in the hands and feet.
Occurs because the blood vessels in the skin dilate. When flushing is produced by the activity of the nerves to the blood vessels, it is accompanied by sweating. Agents which act directly on the blood vessels cause dry flushing. Flushing is also a cardinal symptom of carcinoid syndrome—the syndrome that results from hormones (often serotonin or histamine) being secreted into systemic circulation.
430) Foaming At Mouth
To produce foam from the mouth because of illness or excitement The dog was foaming at the mouth. 2 informal: to be very angry about something He was foaming at the mouth with rage. Foaming at the mouth is normally associated with central nervous system problems with life-threatening complications, including coma and death.
431) Focal Cortical Resection
Is a type of surgery that removes damaged tissue from the brain that causes focal seizures. The surgery involves the removal of small parts of the brain and may involve tissue from one or more lobe.
432) Focal Dyscognitive Seizures
Does not involve convulsions, but it does impair awareness or consciousness. During the seizure, the person may be unable to respond to questions. Focal dyscognitive seizures can begin in different regions or brain networks. The symptoms of a focal seizure: muscle contractions, followed by relaxation, contractions on just one side of your body, unusual head or eye movements, numbness, tingling, or a feeling that something is crawling on your skin, abdominal pain, rapid heart rate or pulse.
433) Foetal Distress Syndrome
Fetal distress is a sign that your baby is not well. It happens when the baby isn’t receiving enough oxygen through the placenta. If it’s not treated, fetal distress can lead to the baby breathing in amniotic fluid containing meconium (poo). Signs of Fetal Distress: Abnormal Heart Rates. Babies who are progressing well in utero will have stable and robust heartbeats. Decrease in Fetal Movement. Maternal Cramping. Maternal Weight Gain. Vaginal Bleeding. Meconium in the Amniotic Fluid.
434) Foetal Placental Thrombosis
Placental fetal thrombotic vasculopathy has been associated with stillbirth and intrapartum or neonatal death. The placenta is an organ that develops in your uterus during pregnancy. This structure provides oxygen and nutrients to your growing baby and removes waste products from your baby’s blood. The placenta attaches to the wall of your uterus, and your baby’s umbilical cord arises from it.
435) Fetor Hepaticus
Occurs when your breath has a strong, musty smell. It’s a sign that your liver is having trouble doing its job of filtering out toxic substances, usually due to severe liver disease. As a result, sulfur substances end up in your bloodstream and can make their way to your lungs. Fetor hepaticus is a late sign of hepatocellular failure and indicates the onset of hepatic encephalopathy, a condition in which the consciousness is affected along with other motor parameters, by the elevated levels of toxic substances in the brain.
436) Foreign Body Embolism
Can cause clot formation, secondary infection, pulmonary infarction and erosion to a bronchus. 1 ,2 Therefore, removal of foreign bodies should be considered to avoid secondary complications. Signs and symptoms may also include tiredness, weakness, hemorrhage, hematoma, transient hemiparesis, and edema.
437) Frontal Lobe Epilepsy
Are a common form of epilepsy, a neurological disorder in which clusters of brain cells send abnormal signals and cause seizures. These types of seizures stem from the front of the brain. The symptoms of a frontal lobe seizures: Abnormal behavior such as screaming, swearing or laughing. Head or eyes turning to one side. Leg movements such as kicking or pedaling. Pelvic thrusting. Sleep-walking. Thrashing. Twitching or jerking. Urinary incontinence (uncontrollable urine leakage).
438) Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms:Extreme thirst.Increased hunger (especially after eating). Dry mouth. Upset stomach and vomiting. Frequent urination.Unexplained weight loss, even though you’re eating and feel hungry. Fatigue. Blurry vision. It is defined as diabetes in which the process of beta-cell destruction and the progression of hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis are extremely rapid.
439) Galactose Elimination Capacity Test Abnormal
GEC, is a clinical liver test that gives an approximate measure of the liver’s maximum removal rate of galactose, Vmax, and is interpreted as a measure of metabolic liver function. Consumption yes minimal blood. Methionine breath test consumption yes minimal breath test. Perfused hepatic mass extraction yes.
440) Galactose Elimination Capacity Test Decreased
Is a clinical liver test that gives an approximate measure of the liver’s maximum removal rate of galactose, Vmax, and is interpreted as a measure of metabolic liver function.
441) Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Abnormal
(GGT) test measures the amount of GGT in the blood. GGT is an enzyme found throughout the body, but it is mostly found in the liver. When the liver is damaged, GGT may leak into the bloodstream. High levels of GGT in the blood may be a sign of liver disease or damage to the bile ducts.
442) Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Increased
In general, the higher the GGT level, the greater the damage to your liver. Liver conditions that can cause elevated GGT levels include: Hepatitis (liver inflammation), especially viral hepatitis and alcoholic hepatitis. Cirrhosis (scarring of the liver). GGT is an enzyme found throughout the body, but it is mostly found in the liver. When the liver is damaged, GGT may leak into the bloodstream.
443) Gastritis Herpes
Gastric infection with herpes simplex virus is rare, with only two cases previously reported. At the time of the previous reports, the virus could not be cultured, and the diagnosis was based on histological findings. Symptoms: pain or difficulty when swallowing, nausea, heartburn or chest pain, symptoms that typically accompany a fever, sores in the back of the throat, sores on or around the mouth.
444) Gastrointestinal Amyloidosis
Clinical presentation: Several longitudinal and cross-sectional cohorts have described the symptomatology of GI amyloidosis. Common presenting symptoms include weight loss, diarrhea, abdominal pain, malabsorption, esophageal reflux, and varying degrees of upper and lower GI bleeding, including fatal hemorrhage.
445) Gelastic Seizure
Is the term used to describe focal or partial seizures with bouts of uncontrolled laughing or giggling. They are often called laughing seizures. The person may look like they are smiling or smirking. Dacrystic seizures are focal or partial seizures when a person makes a crying sound.
446) Generalised Onset Non-Motor Seizure
Is a Generalized Onset Non-Motor Seizure. An absence seizure causes a short period of “blanking out” or staring into space, and are usually so brief that they frequently escape notice. Like other kinds of seizures, they are caused by abnormal activity in a person’s brain.
447) Generalised Tonic-Clonic Seizure
An absence seizure causes a short period of “blanking out” or staring into space, and are usually so brief that they frequently escape notice. Like other kinds of seizures, they are caused by abnormal activity in a person’s brain.
448) Genital Herpes
Outbreaks usually look like a cluster of itchy or painful blisters filled with fluid. They may be different sizes and appear in different places. The blisters break or turn into sores that bleed or ooze a whitish fluid.If you experience symptoms of genital herpes, they may include: Pain or itching. You may experience pain and tenderness in your genital area until the infection clears. Small red bumps or tiny white blisters. These may appear a few days to a few weeks after infection.Ulcers. Scabs.
449) Genital Herpes Simplex
Is a common sexually transmitted infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Sexual contact is the primary way that the virus spreads. After the initial infection, the virus lies dormant in your body and can reactivate several times a year.
450) Genital Herpes Zoster
Herpes zoster is an acute, cutaneous viral infection caused by the reactivation of varicella-zoster virus. Genital dermatomes are involved in only up to 2% of cases and are probably underrecognized. We present a series of 7 genital herpes zoster cases diagnosed in our Unit of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
451) Giant Cell Arteritis
Is an inflammation of the lining of your arteries. Most often, it affects the arteries in your head, especially those in your temples. For this reason, giant cell arteritis is sometimes called temporal arteritis. Signs and symptoms of giant cell arteritis include: Persistent, severe head pain, usually in your temple area. Scalp tenderness. Jaw pain when you chew or open your mouth wide. Fever. Fatigue. Unintended weight loss. Vision loss or double vision, particularly in people who also have jaw pain.
Is inflammation of the glomeruli, which are structures in your kidneys that are made up of tiny blood vessels. These knots of vessels help filter your blood and remove excess fluids. If your glomeruli are damaged, your kidneys will stop working properly, and you can go into kidney failure. The symptoms of glomerulonephritis: Fatigue. High blood pressure. Swelling of the face, hands, feet, and belly. Blood and protein in the urine (hematuria and proteinuria. Decreased urine output.
453) Glomerulonephritis Membranoproliferative
(MPGN) is a form of glomerulonephritis caused by an abnormal immune response. Deposits of antibodies build up in a part of the kidneys called the glomerular basement membrane. This membrane helps filter wastes and extra fluids from the blood.
454) Glomerulonephritis Membranous
Occurs when the small blood vessels in the kidney (glomeruli), which filter wastes from the blood, become damaged and thickened. As a result, proteins leak from the damaged blood vessels into the urine (proteinuria). Signs and symptoms of membranous nephropathy include: Swelling in the legs and ankles. Weight gain. Fatigue. Poor appetite. Urine that looks foamy. High cholesterol. Increased protein in the urine (proteinuria) Decreased protein in the blood, particularly albumin.
455) Glomerulonephritis Rapidly Progressive
(RPGN) is a clinical syndrome manifested by features of glomerular disease in the urinalysis and by progressive loss of kidney function over a comparatively short period of time (days, weeks, or a few months). Most types of RPGN are characterized by severe and rapid loss of kidney function with marked hematuria; red blood cell casts in the urine; and proteinuria sometimes exceeding three grams in twenty-four hours, a range associated with nephrotic syndrome. Some patients also experience hypertension and edema.
456) Glossopharyngeal Nerve Paralysis
Is paralysis of the ninth cranial nerve. Clinical features include: loss of sensation – tested by the gag reflex. loss of taste sensation on the posterior 1/3 of the tongue. Symptoms include severe pain in areas connected to the ninth cranial nerve: Back of the nose and throat (nasopharynx). Back of the tongue. Ear.Throat. Tonsil area. Voice box (larynx)
457) Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency Syndrome
Glut1DS) is a rare genetic metabolic disorder characterized by deficiency of a protein that is required for glucose (a simple sugar) to cross the blood-brain barrier and other tissue barriers. Signs and symptoms including mental and motor developmental delays, infantile seizures refractory to anticonvulsants, ataxia, dystonia, dysarthria, opsoclonus, spasticity, other paroxysmal neurologic phenomena and sometimes deceleration of head growth also known as microcephaly.
458) Glutamate Dehydrogenase Increased
Is a mitochondrial enzyme that reversibly converts glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate as part of the urea cycle. GLDH activity increases with liver injury and the magnitude of elevation may be higher and longer lasting when compared to ALT.
459) Glycocholic Acid Increased
Is one of the bile acids involved in the emulsification of fats and cholestasis. At this point, the level of glycocholic acid in urine was increased. Cholic acid is also one of major primary bile acids produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine.
460) Gm2 Gangliosidosis
Is a rare genetic disorder that progressively destroys nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The most common form of the disease typically presents in infancy, but various other forms can present in childhood, adolescence, or even adulthood.
461) Goodpasture’s Syndrome
Is a rare disorder in which your body mistakenly makes antibodies that attack the lungs and kidneys. Generalized symptoms like malaise, weight loss, fatigue, fever, and chills are also common, as are joint aches and pains. Generalized symptoms like malaise, weight loss, fatigue, fever, and chills are also common, as are joint aches and pains.
462) Graft Thrombosis
Thrombosis, on the other hand, is a medical term used to refer to the formation of blood cloth. Thus, an arteriovenous graft thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot inside the arteriovenous graft. An AV fistula is made using the patient’s own arteries and veins to create a conduit for the dialysis procedure. Symptoms of an arteriovenous graft thrombosis include a reduced amount of blood flowing through the tube. Normally, patients will feel the blood rushing through the tube as well as hear a rumbling sound. These are signs of good blood flow through the fistula or graft.
Is defined as a decrease of peripheral blood granulocytes below lower limit of normal range. Patients with severe granulocytopenia – agranulocytosis exhibit < 0.5 × 109/l granulocytes in peipheral blood. Having very low levels of granulocytes in the blood can lead to serious or life-threatening infections. Signs and symptoms of agranulocytosis include fever, chills, weakness, sore throat, sores in the mouth or throat, bleeding gums, bone pain, low blood pressure, fast heartbeat, and trouble breathing.
464) Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis
Is an uncommon disorder that causes inflammation of the blood vessels in your nose, sinuses, throat, lungs and kidneys. Formerly called Wegener’s granulomatosis, this condition is one of a group of blood vessel disorders called vasculitis. It slows blood flow to some of your organs.
465) Granulomatous Dermatitis
Is a rare disease that clinically presents with a pruritic and painful rash revealing symmetric, erythematous, and violaceous plaques over the lateral trunk, buttocks, and thighs. Fewer than 70 cases have been documented in the literature. The features of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis are variable. The shape of the lesions may be round, annular or cord-like. Lesions wax and wane, and may vary in size and shape over days to months. They are usually symptomless, but some patients complain of mild itch or burning sensation.
466) Grey Matter Heterotopia
Is a malformation of cortical development, where cortical cells (grey matter) are present in inappropriate locations in the brain, due to interruption in their migration to their correct location in the cerebral cortex. Grey matter heterotopia (GMH) can cause of seizures and are associated with a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders and syndromes. They are caused by a failure of neuronal migration during fetal development, leading to clusters of neurons that have not reached their final destination in the cerebral cortex.
467) Guillain-Barre Syndrome
Is a rare, autoimmune disorder in which a person’s own immune system damages the nerves, causing muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis. GBS can cause symptoms that last for a few weeks to several years. Most people recover fully, but some have permanent nerve damage. The symptoms of GBS: Difficulty with eye muscles and vision. Difficulty swallowing, speaking, or chewing. Pricking or pins and needles sensations in the hands and feet. Pain that can be severe, particularly at night. Coordination problems and unsteadiness. Abnormal heart beat/rate or blood pressure.
468) Haemolytic Anaemia
Is a disorder in which red blood cells are destroyed faster than they can be made. The destruction of red blood cells is called hemolysis. Red blood cells carry oxygen to all parts of your body. If you have a lower than normal amount of red blood cells, you have anemia. Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia Signs and Symptoms: Chills. Fast heartbeat, known as tachycardia. Pale skin that may start to yellow. Shortness of breath. Weakness and fatigue. Chest pain. Yellow skin or whites of the eyes (jaundice). Dark urine.
469) Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis
Is a rare disease that usually occurs in infants and young children. It may also occur in adults. Children usually inherit the disease. In adults, many different conditions, including infections and cancer, can cause HLH. The symptoms of HLH: Enlargement of your liver. Swollen lymph nodes. Skin rashes. Jaundice (yellow color of your skin and eyes). Lung problems, including coughing and difficulty breathing. Digestive problems, including stomachache, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Loss of blood from damaged blood vessels. A hemorrhage may be internal or external, and usually involves a lot of bleeding in a short time. The main symptoms of a subarachnoid haemorrhage include: a sudden severe headache unlike anything you’ve experienced before, a stiff neck, feeling and being sick, sensitivity to light (photophobia), blurred or double vision, stroke-like symptoms – such as slurred speech and weakness on one side of the body.
471) Haemorrhagic Ascites
Was defined as an ascitic fluid red blood cell (RBC) count ≥ 10,000/μl. We compared each patient with 3 age and gender-matched controls (cirrhotic patients with ascites and an ascitic RBC count <10,000/μl). Hemorrhagic ascites usually is associated with malignancies (hepatocellular carcinoma, peritoneal carcinomatosis), tuberculosis, or trauma. When secondary to tumor, the prognosis is particularly grim.
472) Hemorrhagic Disorder
Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels. Symptoms of bleeding disorders may include: Easy bruising. Bleeding gums. Heavy bleeding from small cuts or dental work. Unexplained nosebleeds. Heavy menstrual bleeding. Bleeding into joints. Excessive bleeding following surgery.
473) Hemorrhagic Pneumonia
Refers to a descriptive term for pneumonia (infective – inflammatory consolidation of the lung) that is complicated by pulmonary hemorrhage. It can be localized or diffuse to varying degrees depending on the extent of involvement +/- etiological agent.
474) Haemorrhagic Varicella Syndrome
Is a serious complication of a relatively benign disorder and usually occurs in immunocompromised persons and those on immunosuppressive therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of hemorrhagic varicella associated with chronic liver disease in Indian literature.
475) Hemorrhagic Vasculitis
Vasculitis involves inflammation of the blood vessels. The inflammation can cause the walls of the blood vessels to thicken, which reduces the width of the passageway through the vessel. If blood flow is restricted, it can result in organ and tissue damage. There are many types of vasculitis, and most of them are rare.
476) Hantavirus Pulmonary Infection
(HPS) is a severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory disease in humans caused by infection with hantaviruses. Anyone who comes into contact with rodents that carry hantaviruses is at risk of HPS. Rodent infestation in and around the home remains the primary risk for hantavirus exposure.
477) Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy
(HE) is an uncommon syndrome associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). “Steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis” (SREAT) and a more general term, “nonvasculitic autoimmune meningoencephalitis,” are also used to describe this condition. Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE) affects the brain and how the brain works. Symptoms of HE may include behavior changes, confusion, cognitive difficulty, and seizures . Psychosis, including visual hallucinations and paranoid delusions, has also been reported.
Which can be abbreviated “Htx”, is a transient hyperthyroidism caused by inflammation associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis disturbing the thyroid follicles, resulting in excess release of thyroid hormone. These signs and symptoms might include: Presence of a hard but painless goiter. Sweating. Tremoring hands. Increased appetite. Difficulty sleeping. Weight loss. Fatigue. Intolerance to heat.
Is a rare neurological condition in which one-half of the brain, or one side of the brain, is abnormally larger than the other. Children with hemimegalencephaly often have: Large, asymmetrical heads. Seizures. Partial paralysis. Problems with cognitive development.
480) Henoch-Schonlein Purpura
Is a disorder that causes the small blood vessels in your skin, joints, intestines and kidneys to become inflamed and bleed. The most striking feature of this form of vasculitis is a purplish rash, typically on the lower legs and buttocks. HSP is an autoimmune disease that is often triggered by an upper respiratory infection. Symptoms include a rash caused by bleeding under the skin, arthritis, belly pain, and kidney disease. Most children recover fully. But some children may have kidney problems.
481) Henoch-Schonlein Purpura Nephritis
Is a rare kidney disease leading to chronic kidney disease in a non-negligible percentage of patients. Symptoms: Rash (purpura). Reddish-purple spots that look like bruises develop on the buttocks, legs and feet. Swollen, sore joints (arthritis). People with Henoch-Schonlein purpura often have pain and swelling around the joints — mainly in the knees and ankles. Digestive tract symptoms. Kidney involvement.
482) Hepaplastin Abnormal
A condition of arrested development in which an organ or part remains below the normal size or in an immature state. Babies born with hypoplastic left heart syndrome usually are seriously ill soon after birth. Signs and symptoms include: Grayish-blue skin color (cyanosis) Rapid, difficult breathing.
483) Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia
(HIT) is a clinicopathological syndrome that occurs when heparin dependent IgG antibodies bind to heparin/platelet factor 4 complexes to activate platelets and produce a hypercoagulable state. The Symptoms of HIT：Skin tenderness. Swelling. Skin that’s warm to the touch. Shortness of breath. Change in heart rate. Sharp pain in your chest. Dizziness. Anxiety.
484) Hepatic Amyloidosis
Is usually characterised by amyloid deposits in the liver parenchyma along the sinusoids within the spaces of disse or within the blood vessel walls. As a result of extensive compression of hepatocytes by the amyloid deposits there may be atrophy of hepatocyte. The clinical manifestations of hepatic amyloidosis are usually mild and frequently include hepatomegaly, and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and other liver chemistries. In rare cases, portal hypertension, hepatic rupture, or hepatorenal failure are seen
485) Hepatic Artery Embolism
Is a therapy to treat liver tumors by blocking their blood supply. Because liver tumors thrive on highly oxygenated blood from the hepatic artery, blocking that supply may kill it.
486) Hepatic Artery Thrombosis
Occurs when a blood clot forms in the artery that provides blood flow to the liver. Hepatic artery thrombosis may occur as a complication after liver transplantation, and represents the most common complication of liver transplantation.
487) Hepatic Enzyme Abnormal
If you have high levels of liver enzymes in your blood, you have elevated liver enzymes. High liver enzyme levels may be temporary, or they may be a sign of a medical condition like hepatitis or liver disease. Certain medications can also cause elevated liver enzymes.
488) Hepatic Enzyme Decreased
Usually, this means the liver is healthy. However, a patient may have normal liver enzymes levels but still have liver damage.
489) Hepatic Enzyme Increased
Definition. Elevated liver enzymes often indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or injured liver cells leak higher than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, elevating liver enzymes on blood tests.
490) Hepatic Fibrosis Marker Abnormal
Liver fibrosis markers are typically divided into indirect and direct markers of fibrogenesis and fibrinolysis. Indirect markers of hepatic fibrosis include biochemical tests that reflect alterations in hepatic function such as bilirubin, AST, ALT, GGT and platelet count.
491) Hepatic Fibrosis Marker Increased
The N-terminal pro-peptide of collagen type III (PIIINP) is the most widely studied marker of liver fibrosis. It is useful to detect cirrhosis with a sensitivity of about 94% and specificity of about 81%, which can be increased up to 93% if combined with additional serum markers.
492) Hepatic Function Abnormal
If you have high levels of liver enzymes in your blood, you have elevated liver enzymes. High liver enzyme levels may be temporary, or they may be a sign of a medical condition like hepatitis or liver disease. Certain medications can also cause elevated liver enzymes.
Refers to the presence of a pleural effusion (usually >500 mL) in a patient with cirrhosis who does not have other reasons to have a pleural effusion (eg, cardiac, pulmonary, or pleural disease) [1-3]. Hepatic hydrothorax occurs in approximately 5 to 15 percent of patients with cirrhosis. The presenting symptoms and signs of hepatic hydrothorax are related to direct compression of the adjacent lung. These include cough, shortness of breath, hypoxemia, chest pain and fatigue.
494) Hepatic Hypertrophy
Definition of The liver hypertrophy. In this document, the liver hypertrophy is defined as a morphological enlargement of hepatocytes (hepatocellular hypertrophy), resulting in an increase in the organ weight, which is caused by enhanced hepatocellular function in response to an extrinsic factor.
495) Hepatic Hypoperfusion
Hepatocytes hypoperfusion that causes liver cell injury is classified as “ischemic hepatitis” resulting from hemodynamic instability and inadequate blood flow due to reduced hepatic arterial flow and/or passive venous congestion (e.g. Heart failure) and “hypoxic hepatitis” that results from hypoxic insults such as respiratory failure, this condition is also termed “hypoxic hepatopathy” .
496) Hepatic Lymphocytic Infiltration
Is a rare skin condition that may be characterized by non-cancerous (benign) buildup of white blood cells, which present as lesions or lumps on the skin.
497) Hepatic Mass
It can be caused by long term oral contraception use or synthetic testosterone use. Hepatic adenomas can sometimes cause discomfort in the abdomen. About 5% of them will transform into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)—a type of liver cancer.
498) Hepatic Pain
Pain in your liver itself can feel like a dull throbbing pain or a stabbing sensation in your right upper abdomen just under your ribs. General abdominal pain and discomfort can also be related to swelling from fluid retention and enlargement of your spleen and liver caused by cirrhosis.
499) Hepatic Sequestration
Hepatic sequestration crisis occurs when a patient with sickle cell disease acutely sequesters large numbers of red blood cells in the liver. Less than 20 cases have been reported in the literature. Hepatic sequestration crisis is not common and it is caused by obstruction of the blood flow from the liver sinusoids by the sickled red blood cells leading to compression of the bile ducts. This will lead to pooling of blood within the liver leading to acute hepatic enlargement.
500) Hepatic Vascular Resistance Increased
Increased intrahepatic vascular resistance, especiallv due to obstruction and stenoses of the intrahepatic hepatic vein, has been thought to be most important; however, the exact localization of increased vascular resistance is not known.
501) Hepatic Vascular Thrombosis
(HVT) is an obstruction in the hepatic veins of the liver caused by a blood clot. This condition blocks the drainage system of your liver, impeding blood flow back to your heart. Without proper blood flow, your liver stops getting the fresh oxygen it needs to function.
502) Hepatic Vein Embolism
(Budd-Chiari syndrome) is a common site of thrombosis in PNH and may be fatal without appropriate therapy. The clinical manifestations of hepatic vein thrombosis include abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, jaundice, ascites, and weight gain.
503) Hepatic Vein Thrombosis
Is an obstruction in the hepatic veins of the liver caused by a blood clot. This condition blocks the drainage system of your liver, impeding blood flow back to your heart. Without proper blood flow, your liver stops getting the fresh oxygen it needs to function. Symptoms of HVT: nausea and vomiting, vomiting blood, unexplained weight loss, enlarged spleen, swelling of lower limbs, abdominal pain (mainly in the upper right part of your abdomen), jaundice (yellowing of your skin and eyes).
504) Hepatic Venous Pressure Gradient Abnormal
The normal HVPG value is between 1 to 5 mmHg. Pressure higher than this defines the presence of portal hypertension, regardless of clinical evidence. HVPG >or= 10 mmHg (termed clinically significant portal hypertension) is predictive of the development of complications of cirrhosis, including death.
505) Hepatic Venous Pressure Gradient Increased
Measurement is the best available method to evaluate the presence and severity of portal hypertension. Clinically significant portal hypertension is defined as an increase in HVPG to >10 mmHg. In this condition, the complications of portal hypertension might begin to appear.
Inflammation of the liver — is a condition that can be caused by a number of factors, though often viral infections are the cause. A number of hepatitis viruses — A, B, C, D and E — are common causes of hepatitis, but they have been ruled out in these cases. When signs and symptoms are present, they may include jaundice, along with fatigue, nausea, fever and muscle aches. Acute symptoms appear one to three months after exposure to the virus and last two weeks to three months
507) Hepatobiliary Scan Abnormal
If your scan was “abnormal,” it likely means your images revealed one of the following: An infection. This may be a sign of a blockage or a problem with your liver. Not present. If there are no signs of radioactive tracer in your gallbladder on the images, this may be a sign of acute gallbladder inflammation, or acute cholecystitis. Low gallbladder ejection fraction.
An enlarged liver is one that’s bigger than normal. The medical term is hepatomegaly (hep-uh-toe-MEG-uh-le). Rather than a disease, an enlarged liver is a sign of an underlying problem, such as liver disease, congestive heart failure or cancer. The signs and symptoms of hepatomegaly: jaundice, or yellowing of the skin and eyes, muscle aches, fatigue, itching, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain or mass, poor appetite.
Is a disorder where both the liver and spleen swell beyond their normal size, due to one of a number of causes. The name of this condition — hepatosplenomegaly — comes from the two words that comprise it: hepatomegaly: swelling or enlargement of the liver. Symptoms: abdominal pain in the upper-right region, tenderness in the right region of the abdomen, nausea and vomiting, swelling of the abdomen, fever, persistent itching, jaundice, indicated by yellow eyes and skin, brown urine.
510) Hereditary Angioedema With C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency
Is an autosomal-dominant disease resulting from a mutation in the C1-inhibitor gene. Although HAE is an inherited disorder, 25% of cases arise from spontaneous mutations. HAE-C1-INH is characterized by recurrent attacks of marked, diffuse, nonpitting and nonpruritic skin swellings, painful abdominal attacks, and laryngeal edema.
511) Herpes Dermatitis
It can be transmitted from one person to another via physical contact. The virus can remain dormant for years and become active again causing rashes on the skin. Herpes commonly affects the lips and genital areas. In both herpes and dermatitis herpetiformis, the lesions arise in small groups.
Symptoms include thick, scaly, red patches of skin across the body. Unlike herpes, dermatitis can occur anywhere on the body. Contact dermatitis will likely go away after exposure to the irritant has stopped and the skin is cleaned with a mild soap.
512) Herpes Gestationis
Also known as pemphigoid gestationis, is a rare, autoimmune, bullous disease that occurs during the second or third trimester, but it has been reported in the first trimester. It flares at delivery and usually resolves spontaneously over weeks or months after delivery.
513) Herpes Oesophagitis
Esophagitis is inflammation and irritation of the esophagus, and herpes esophagitis is a rare type that results from an HSV infection. The condition usually develops in people with weakened immune systems. Treatment involves antiviral medications and avoiding foods and other substances that trigger symptoms.
514) Herpes Ophthalmic
Commonly known as shingles, is a viral disease characterized by a unilateral painful skin rash in one or more dermatome distributions of the fifth cranial nerve (trigeminal nerve), shared by the eye and ocular adnexa. The problem may be caused by herpes zoster ophthalmicus if your doctor finds some or all of these symptoms: Pain in and around only one eye.Redness, rash or sores on the eyelids and around the eyes, especially on the forehead (and sometime on the tip of the nose).Redness of the eye. Swelling and cloudiness of the cornea.
515) Herpes Pharyngitis
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) commonly causes the well-known “cold sore.” HSV can also cause exudative or nonexudative pharyngitis, mainly in older children and young adults. Sore throat may be accompanied by sore mouth with associated gingivostomatitis. Other symptoms include fever, myalgia, malaise, inability to eat, and irritability.
516) Herpes Sepsis
For HSV-sepsis, the high mortality is largely due to the non-specific clinical presentation, lack of awareness, delay in diagnosis and therapy.
517) Herpes Simplex
Herpes simplex virus infection causes recurring episodes of small, painful, fluid-filled blisters on the skin, mouth, lips (cold sores), eyes, or genitals. Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is rare and accounts for only 1% of all acute liver failures.
518) Herpes Simplex Cervicitis
May involve the exocervix or endocervix, and it may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Usually, the cervix appears abnormal to inspection, with diffuse vesicular lesions, ulcerative lesions, erythema, or friability. Cervicitis can result from common sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis and genital herpes. Allergic reactions. An allergy, either to contraceptive spermicides or to latex in condoms, may lead to cervicitis.
519) Herpes Simplex Colitis
Is a rare but potentially fatal complication of immunosuppressive treatment in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Prompt diagnosis and efficient antiviral therapy are mandatory to improve prognosis. Symptoms of HSV colitis are not specific and do not differ considerably from colitis caused by other agents. Watery diarrhoea with addition of blood, crampy abdominal pain, fever, arthralgia, nausea, loss of appetite and loss of weight can be found.
520) Herpes Simplex Encephalitis
(HSE) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). Common symptoms include headaches, fevers, drowsiness, hyperactivity, and/or general weakness. (HSE) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). Common symptoms include headaches, fevers, drowsiness, hyperactivity, and/or general weakness.
521) Herpes Simplex Gastritis
Gastric infection with herpes simplex virus is rare, with only two cases previously reported. At the time of the previous reports, the virus could not be cultured, and the diagnosis was based on histological findings.
522) Herpes Simplex Hepatitis
Is a rare complication of herpes simplex virus (HSV), often leading to acute liver failure (ALF), liver transplantation (LT), and/or death. Our aim was to identify variables associated with either survival or progression (death/LT), based on an analysis of cases in the literature and our institution. Presents with anicteric transaminitis, fever, leukopenia, and flu-like symptoms. It most frequently affects immunocompromised patients.
523) Herpes Simplex Meningitis
Is a type of viral meningitis that results from infection with a herpes virus. The condition causes swelling of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord, which are called the meninges. Meningitis is the medical term for inflammation of the meninges. Symptoms may include fever, light sensitivity, headache, and a stiff neck. If you have other symptoms, such as confusion, seizures, sleepiness, or a focal neurologic deficit—a nerve function problem that affects a specific area — these may suggest that your brain is also affected.
524) Herpes Simplex Meningoencephalitis
Is an infection of the brain and brain covering (meninges) caused by the herpes simplex virus. It is a medical emergency that requires treatment right away. The symptoms of herpes meningoencephalitis: Headache. Fever. Neck stiffness. Sensitivity to light. Seizures. Trouble thinking clearly. Personality changes. Hallucinations, visual and auditory.
525) Herpes Simplex Meningomyelitis
Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) may cause encephalomyelitis in immune competent adults. We report two patients infected by the virus. The symptoms of herpes meningoencephalitis: Headache. Fever. Neck stiffness. Sensitivity to light. Seizures. Trouble thinking clearly. Personality changes. Hallucinations, visual and auditory.
526) Herpes Simplex Necrotising Retinopathy
The retinal lesions of ARN are white-yellow patches of necrotizing retinitis that usually first appear in the far or midperiphery. With time, these patches become larger, increase in number, and coalesce. Without antiviral therapy, full-thickness necrosis of the entire peripheral retina will result. Patients present with rapid painful hazy vision, floaters and peripheral visual loss. 3, 4, 6, 10 Clinically, acute retinal necrosis appears as full thickness opaque yellow-white necrotic lesion(s) initially outside of the vascular arcades with significant intraocular inflammation.
527) Herpes Simplex Oesophagitis
Is a viral infection of the esophagus. It’s caused by the herpes simplex virus. Type 1 and type 2 can both cause herpes esophagitis, although herpes type 1 is more common. Still, herpes esophagitis isn’t very common in healthy people.
528) Herpes Simplex Otitis Externa
Is inflammation of the external auditory canal caused by herpes simplex virus. There are currently no drugs listed for “Herpes Simplex Otitis Externa”. The most common cause of otitis externa is a bacterial infection, although fungal overgrowth is a principal cause in 10 percent of cases. 4 Otitis externa can also result from any of a broad range of noninfectious dermatologic processes.
529) Herpes Simplex Pharyngitis
Is caused by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. This infection is commonly observed in children and young adults. HSV may cause gingivitis or stomatitis. A sore throat with associated gingivostomatitis is the typical presenting symptom. A sore throat with associated gingivostomatitis is the typical presenting symptom. Other associated symptoms include fever, odynophagia, myalgia and malaise.
530) Herpes Simplex Pneumonia
Is rare and is usually seen in immunocompromised patients. Patients with hematologic malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) are at risk. Most of the cases of HSV pneumonia are caused by HSV-1; however, cases caused by HSV-2 have also been reported. Include low-grade fever, cough, dyspnea, rales, hypoxemia, tachypnea, intractable wheezing, or chest pain. Hemoptysis may also be present, secondary to tracheitis.
531) Herpes Simplex Reactivation
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes a latent infection in peripheral neurons and can periodically reactivate to cause disease. Reactivation can be triggered by a variety of stimuli that activate different cellular processes to result in increased HSV lytic gene expression and production of infectious virus.
532) Herpes Simplex Sepsis
The importance of HSV-induced acute liver failure is based on its extremely severe clinical course with lethality rates of almost 75%. HSV hepatitis is just one of several clinical manifestations of HSV sepsis leading more frequently to encephalitis, pneumonia and esophagitis. Rare complications of HSV-2 include meningoencephalitis (brain infection) and disseminated infection. Rarely, HSV-1 infection can lead to more severe complications such as encephalitis (brain infection) or keratitis (eye infection).
533) Herpes Simplex Viraemia
Viremia may be associated with a variety of morbid signs and symptoms in hospitalized immunocompetent and immunocompromised adults, and is associated with high rates of mortality, though causality can only be determined by additional studies. When an outbreak is about to happen again, there may be burning, itching, or tingling near where the virus first entered the body. Pain may be felt in the lower back, buttocks, thighs, or knees. This is called a prodrome.
Herpes Simplex Virus Conjunctivitis Neonatal
A neonatal HSV infection can be devastating to an infant. 8 Most of these infections are caused by HSV-2, but 15 to 30 percent are found to be caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Most cases occur in the intrapartum period, but they may occur in utero and postnatally through contact with oral or skin lesions.
534) Herpes Simplex Visceral
HSV-1 and HSV-2 produce a wide variety of illnesses, including mucocutaneous infections, central nervous system (CNS) infections, and occasionally, infections of the visceral organs. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common cause of sporadic, fatal encephalitis in the developed world.
535) Herpes Virus Infection
The herpes simplex virus, also known as HSV, is a viral infection that causes genital and oral herpes. While herpes outbreaks can be annoying and painful, the first flare-up is usually the worst. Herpes causes outbreaks of itchy, painful blisters or sores that come and go.
536) Herpes Zoster
Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is caused by the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the same virus that causes varicella (chickenpox). Primary infection with VZV causes varicella. Once the illness resolves, the virus remains latent in the dorsal root ganglia. Shingles causes a painful rash, itching, and burning skin.
537) Herpes Zoster Cutaneous Disseminated
Is usually defined as a generalized eruption of more than 10-12 extradermatomal vesicles occurring 7-14 days after the onset of classic dermatomal herpes zoster. Typically, it is clinically indistinguishable from varicella (chickenpox). One of the classic signs of herpes zoster (HZ, or shingles) is a painful and blistering red rash that appears in a narrow band across 1 or 2 adjacent dermatomes, an area of skin that is mainly supplied by branches of a single spinal sensory nerve root.
538) Herpes Zoster Infection Neurological
Is one of the most common neurological infectious diseases and VZV the second most frequent virus causing encephalitis or meningitis [1,2,3]. It develops by reactivation of latently persistent virus in the nerve ganglia after primary infection with chickenpox. The shingles virus stays dormant in the nerve tissues. If your immune system grows weaker, the virus reactivates. As the virus becomes active, it spreads through the spinal cord nerves to the skin. These nerves convey messages of pressure, itching, and pain.
539) Herpes Zoster Meningitis
Viral meningitis caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an uncommon neurological complication of herpes zoster. It may occur before or after the onset of the vesicular rash along the dermatomal distribution, which is the classic presentation of herpes zoster. Its clinical signs include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and meningeal irritation symptoms, such as nuchal rigidity and Kernig’s sign. Furthermore, jolt accentuation and neck flexion tests are often positive. However, these are common symptoms and findings of meningitis regardless of the cause.
540) Herpes Zoster Meningoencephalitis
Herpes meningoencephalitis is an infection of the brain and brain covering (meninges) caused by the herpes simplex virus. It is a medical emergency that requires treatment right away. Viral infections are the most common cause of meningitis, followed by bacterial infections and, rarely, fungal and parasitic infections. Because bacterial infections can be life-threatening, identifying the cause is essential.
541) Herpes Zoster Meningomyelitis
Prognosis of VZV necro-tizing meningomyelitis is extremely poor,with a median survival of 16 days. Its clinical signs include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and meningeal irritation symptoms, such as nuchal rigidity and Kernig’s sign. Furthermore, jolt accentuation and neck flexion tests are often positive. However, these are common symptoms and findings of meningitis regardless of the cause.
542) Herpes Zoster Meningoradiculitis
Among varicella zoster virus-related neurological syndromes, meningoradiculitis is an ill-defined condition for which clear management guidelines are still lacking. Zoster paresis is usually considered to be a varicella zoster virus-peripheral nervous system complication and treated with oral antiviral therapy
543) Herpes Zoster Necrotising Retinopathy
The retinal lesions of ARN are white-yellow patches of necrotizing retinitis that usually first appear in the far or midperiphery. With time, these patches become larger, increase in number, and coalesce. Without antiviral therapy, full-thickness necrosis of the entire peripheral retina will result.
544) Herpes Zoster Oticus
Is a rare type of shingles — a viral infection of a nerve that causes a painful rash on the face including the ear. It’s caused by the varicella-zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox. Symptoms: Ear pain which can start before you see a rash. Hearing loss. Ringing in the ear. Vertigo. Nausea/vomiting.
545) Herpes Zoster Reactivation
Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is caused by the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the same virus that causes varicella (chickenpox). Primary infection with VZV causes varicella. Once the illness resolves, the virus remains latent in the dorsal root ganglia. The rash is usually painful, itchy, or tingly. These symptoms may precede rash onset by several days. Some people may also have headache, photophobia (sensitivity to bright light), and malaise in the prodromal phase. The rash develops into clusters of vesicles.
546) Herpetic Radiculopathy
A common cause of radiculopathy is narrowing of the space where nerve roots exit the spine, which can be a result of stenosis, bone spurs, disc herniation or other conditions. Radiculopathy symptoms can often be managed with nonsurgical treatments, but minimally invasive surgery can also help some patients.
547) Histone Antibody Positive
Results of histone antibody testing consider several factors. A positive result means that a person likely has drug-induced lupus if the person also has: Symptoms associated with lupus. Been taking a drug, especially one associated with the condition, for several weeks to a couple of years.
548) Hoigne’s Syndrome
Is an acute, toxic, nonallergic reaction to the intramuscular administration of aqueous penicillin G procaine. The reaction is to the procaine and not to the penicillin component. The complex of short-lasting symptoms characterized by severe agitation with confusion, visual and auditory hallucinations and dire fear is caused by accidental penetration of an amount of intramuscular penicillin injected into the venous system.
549) Human Herpesvirus 6 Encephalitis
Is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that commonly infects children younger than 3 years. Primary infection sometimes causes exanthema subitum, a common exanthematic disease among infants that may be accompanied by neurologic manifestations such as febrile seizures and encephalitis. The cardinal features of this syndrome include memory loss, insomnia, electroencephalographic evidence of temporal lobe seizure activity, MRI signal intensity abnormalities of the mesial temporal lobe, and the syndrome of inappropriate release of antidiuretic hormone.
550) Human Herpesvirus 6 Infection
Is a herpesvirus that causes roseola infantum (or exanthema subitum [sixth disease]) in infants and children. Infection is nearly ubiquitous by age 2 years. Management of HHV-6 infection in immunocompetent hosts is supportive. HHV-6B infects nearly 100% of human beings, typically before the age of three and often results in fever, diarrhea, sometimes with a rash known as roseola. Although rare, this initial infection HHV-6B infection can also cause febrile seizures, encephalitis or intractable seizures.
551) Human Herpesvirus 6 Infection Reactivation
HHV-6 remains latent in host cells after primary infection and can be reactivated in immunocompromised patients such as after solid-organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The majority of HHV-6 infections in these patients are asymptomatic.
552) Human Herpesvirus 7 Infection
(HHV-7) was discovered in 1989 as a new member of the beta-herpesvirus subfamily. Primary infection occurs early in life and manifests as exanthema subitum, or other febrile illnesses mimicking measles and rubella. HHV-7 infection also leads to or is associated with a number of other symptoms, including acute febrile respiratory disease, fever, rash, vomiting, diarrhea, low lymphocyte counts, and febrile seizures, though most often no symptoms present at all.
553) Human Herpesvirus 8 Infection
Most individuals latently infected with HHV-8 are asymptomatic. Immunocompetent children and organ transplant recipients infected with HHV-8 may develop a primary infection syndrome consisting of fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, bone marrow failure, and occasional rapid progression to KS.
Hyperammonaemia is the excessive accumulation of ammonia in the blood, which can result in moderate to severe neurological impairment and cerebral oedema. characterized by excess ammonia in the blood, can be a life-threatening condition. Clinical symptoms are nonspecific, and include poor feeding, lethargy, irritability, tachypnea, seizures, obtundation, and respiratory insufficiency.
Higher-than-normal amount of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a substance formed when red blood cells break down. The symptoms of hyperbilirubinemia in a newborn: Yellowing of your baby’s skin and the whites of his or her eyes. This often starts on a baby’s face and moves down his or her body. Poor feeding. Lack of energy.
A condition in which an abnormally large amount of bile is formed in the liver.
557) Hypergammaglobulinaemia Benign Monoclonal
Is an uncommon condition that is usually the result of an infection, autoimmune disorder, or malignancy such as multiple myeloma. It’s characterized by elevated levels of immunoglobulins in your blood. Benign monoclonal gammopathy is an abnormal clonal disorder of plasma cells. Also known as monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), benign monoclonal gammopathy is, by definition, an asymptomatic condition.
558) Hyperglycaemic Seizure
Represent a clinical condition with high blood glucose levels, normal or increased serum osmolality, and negative urine ketone bodies. However, hyperglycemia is not the only causative factor for seizures. A diabetic seizure occurs when the sugar levels in the blood are extremely low (below 30 mg/dL). The brain needs glucose to function properly. When there is a drop in blood sugar, the actions of the neurons in the brain decrease and the person experiences a seizure.
Also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity. They are usually referred to as an over-reaction of the immune system and these reactions may be damaging and uncomfortable. The symptoms of hypersensitivity syndrome: a pink or red rash with or without pus-filled bumps or blisters, scaly, flaky skin, fever, facial swelling, swollen or tender lymph nodes, swollen saliva glands, dry mouth, abnormalities in your white blood cell counts.
560) Hypersensitivity Vasculitis
Is an extreme reaction to a drug, infection, or foreign substance. It leads to inflammation and damage to blood vessels, mainly in the skin. The term is not used much currently because more specific names are considered more precise. Symptoms: New rash with tender, purple or brownish-red spots over large areas. Skin sores mostly located on the legs, buttocks, or trunk. Blisters on the skin. Hives (urticaria), may last longer than 24 hours. Open sores with dead tissue (necrotic ulcers)
(overactive thyroid) occurs when your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. Hyperthyroidism can accelerate your body’s metabolism, causing unintentional weight loss and a rapid or irregular heartbeat. Several treatments are available for hyperthyroidism. Symptoms: a rapid heartbeat, weight loss, increased appetite and anxiety.
Refers to having high levels of certain liver enzymes called transaminases. When you have too many enzymes in your liver, they start to move into your blood stream. Symptoms of Transaminitis: Loss of appetite. Nausea. Vomiting. Weakness.Tiredness. Stomach pain or fullness. Yellow color of the skin or whites of the eyes called jaundice. Urine that is dark or looks like tea.
Is rapid or deep breathing, usually caused by anxiety or panic. This overbreathing, as it is sometimes called, may actually leave you feeling breathless. When you breathe, you inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. The symptoms of hyperventilation: Feeling lightheaded, dizzy, weak, or not able to think straight. Feeling as if you can’t catch your breath. Chest pain or fast and pounding heartbeat. Belching or bloating. Dry mouth. Muscle spasms in the hands and feet. Numbness and tingling in the arms or around the mouth. Problems sleeping.
Is a condition where your body doesn’t produce enough albumin protein that’s responsible for keeping fluid in your blood vessels. Hypoalbuminemia decreases the total protein concentration in blood plasma, also known as the colloid osmotic pressure, which causes fluid to exit the blood vessels into tissues to equalize the concentrations.
565) Hypocalcaemic Seizure
Hypocalcemia-induced seizures, in particular, have attracted much clinical attention. These seizures likely occur in patients with predisposing endocrinological abnormalities or renal insufficiency with overall poor calcium homeostasis. Clinical presentation: numbness and tingling of the fingers, toes, and circumoral region. Muscle cramping, stiffness. Carpopedal spasm, tetany (flexor spasms in the arms and extensor spasms in the legs). Laryngeal stridor. Tremor and chorea (may be misdiagnosed as seizures). Seizures.
Is defined as reduced serum immunoglobulin (antibody) levels. Hypogammaglobulinemia is a problem with the immune system that prevents it from making enough antibodies called immunoglobulins. Which symptoms you or your child has will depend on what infections you get, but they can include:coughing, sore throat, fever, ear pain, congestion, sinus pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.
567) Hypoglossal Nerve Paralysis
The hypoglossal nerve can be damaged at the hypoglossal nucleus (nuclear), above the hypoglossal nucleus (supranuclear), or interrupted at the motor axons (infranuclear). Such damage causes paralysis, fasciculations (as noted by a scalloped appearance of the tongue), and eventual atrophy of the tongue muscles. Signs of hypoglossal nerve palsy (HNP) encompass deviation of the tongue to the affected side, absence of power and movement on the same side, fasciculations, and at a later stage atrophy. Most patients complain of dysarthria, while a few patients complain of eating difficulties.
568) Hypoglossal Nerve Paresis
Damage to the hypoglossal nerve causes paralysis of the tongue. Usually, one side of the tongue is affected, and when the person sticks out his or her tongue, it deviates or points toward the side that is damaged. The tongue is first observed for position and appearance while it is at rest.
569) Hypoglycaemic Seizure
Epileptic seizures in relation to hypoglycemia are rare. In this study of a large number of patients with hypoglycemia, a notably low frequency of seizures was noticed. This indicates that the risk of seizures in association with low blood glucose levels seems to be low.
570) Hyponatraemic Seizure
Severe and rapidly evolving hyponatremia may cause seizures, which are usually generalized tonic-clonic, and generally occur if the plasma sodium concentration rapidly decreases to <115 mEq/L.
Also known as low blood pressure, is a blood pressure under 90/60 mm/Hg. In many people, it has no symptoms. When it does cause symptoms, these are usually unpleasant or disruptive, including dizziness, fainting and more. Low blood pressure (hypotension): lightheadedness or dizziness, feeling sick, blurred vision, generally feeling weak, confusion, fainting.
572) Hypotensive Crisis
Also known as low blood pressure, is a blood pressure under 90/60 mm/Hg. In many people, it has no symptoms. When it does cause symptoms, these are usually unpleasant or disruptive, including dizziness, fainting and more. Signs and symptoms of a hypertensive crisis that may be life-threatening may include: Severe chest pain. Severe headache, accompanied by confusion and blurred vision. Nausea and vomiting. Severe anxiety. Shortness of breath. Seizures. Unresponsiveness.
573) Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome
Is a condition of the hand in which the blood flow to the fingers is reduced. Hypothenar refers to the group of muscles that control the movement of the little finger. Some of these muscles make up the fleshy edge of the palm (hypothenar eminence). A pain over hypothenar eminence and ring finger, pins and needles (paresthesia), loss of sensation, and difficulty holding heavy objects in the affected hand. The fingers become sensitive to cold and they change colour.
Is a common condition where the thyroid doesn’t create and release enough thyroid hormone into your bloodstream. This makes your metabolism slow down. Also called underactive thyroid, hypothyroidism can make you feel tired, gain weight and be unable to tolerate cold temperatures. Hypothyroidism signs and symptoms may include: Fatigue. Increased sensitivity to cold. Constipation. Dry skin. Weight gain. Puffy face. Hoarseness. Muscle weakness.
Is a state in which oxygen is not available in sufficient amounts at the tissue level to maintain adequate homeostasis; this can result from inadequate oxygen delivery to the tissues either due to low blood supply or low oxygen content in the blood (hypoxemia). Having low oxygen levels in your tissues is called hypoxia. They include: Headache. Shortness of breath.Fast heartbeat. Coughing. Wheezing. Confusion.Bluish color in skin, fingernails, and lips.
576) Idiopathic Cd4 Lymphocytopenia
(ICL) is a rare condition characterized by an unexplained deficit of circulating CD4 T cells leading to increased risk of serious opportunistic infections. The pathogenesis, etiology, clinical presentation, and best treatment options remain unclear.
577) Idiopathic Generalised Epilepsy
(IGE) is a group of epileptic disorders that are believed to have a strong underlying genetic basis. Patients with an IGE subtype are typically otherwise normal and have no structural brain abnormalities. Symptoms: Temporary confusion. A staring spell. Stiff muscles. Uncontrollable jerking movements of the arms and legs. Loss of consciousness or awareness. Psychological symptoms such as fear, anxiety or deja vu.
578) Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia
Are interstitial lung diseases that have no known cause that have some similarities in symptoms and how they affect the lungs. Some types of these diseases are much more serious than others. Symptoms and signs of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are usually nonspecific. Cough and dyspnea on exertion are typical, with variable onset and progression. Common signs include tachypnea, reduced chest expansion, bibasilar end-inspiratory dry crackles, and digital clubbing.
579) Idiopathic Neutropenia
Is an acquired form of severe chronic neutropenia whose cause is unknown. Neutropenia is a blood condition that causes a reduced number or complete absence of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that is responsible for much of the body’s protection against infection. Symptoms include fever, moth sores, and other types of infections.
580) Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
(IPF) is a condition in which the lungs become scarred and breathing becomes increasingly difficult. It’s not clear what causes it, but it usually affects people who are around 70 to 75 years old, and is rare in people under 50. Symptoms of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: shortness of breath, a persistent dry cough, tiredness, loss of appetite and weight loss, rounded and swollen fingertips (clubbed fingers).
581) Iga Nephropathy
Also known as Berger’s disease, is a kidney disease that occurs when an antibody called immunoglobulin A (IgA) builds up in your kidneys. This results in local inflammation that, over time, can hamper your kidneys’ ability to filter waste from your blood. The symptoms of IgA nephropathy: Visible blood in your urine (hematuria). Flank pain (in the sides of your back). Ankle swelling (edema). High blood pressure (hypertension). Proteinuria (having too much protein in your urine), which can cause edema (swelling) and foamy urine.
582) Igm Nephropathy
Immunoglobulin M nephropathy (IgMN) is an idiopathic glomerulonephritis characterized by a variable degree of mesangial hyper-cellularity and diffuse IgM deposits. IgM Nephropathy is an autoimmune disease that affects the filters (gomeruli) of the kidneys. IgM is an immunoglobulin, which is a part of an individual’s healthy immune system. Immunoglobulin M is an antibody produced by B cells and is normally the first antibody to respond and attack an infection in the body. Symptoms: Worsening blood pressure control. Protein in the urine. Swelling of feet, ankles, hands or eyes.Increased need to urinate. Reduced need for insulin or diabetes medicine. Confusion or difficulty concentrating. Shortness of breath. Loss of appetite.
583) Iiird Nerve Paralysis
A complete third nerve palsy causes a completely closed eyelid and deviation of the eye outward and downward. The eye cannot move inward or up, and the pupil is typically enlarged and does not react normally to light. Symptoms of Third Cranial Nerve Palsy: The affected eye turns slightly outward and downward when the unaffected eye looks straight ahead, causing double vision. The affected eye may turn inward very slowly and may move only to the middle when looking inward. It cannot move up and down.
584) Iiird Nerve Paresis
A complete third nerve palsy causes a completely closed eyelid and deviation of the eye outward and downward. The eye cannot move inward or up, and the pupil is typically enlarged and does not react normally to light. Symptoms of Third Cranial Nerve Palsy: The affected eye turns slightly outward and downward when the unaffected eye looks straight ahead, causing double vision. The affected eye may turn inward very slowly and may move only to the middle when looking inward. It cannot move up and down.
585) Liac Artery Embolism
Iliac artery thrombosis is a rare and limb-threatening condition requires urgent recognition and treatment to prevent amputation or death. Unrecognized, it can lead to limb ischemia, tissue necrosis and sepsis resulting in death. It usually arises from an embolic event.It occurs when the iliac artery that brings blood to your legs becomes narrow or blocked by plaque. Symptoms can include pain, numbness, or cramping in the lower limbs, gangrene in the feet, and erectile dysfunction (ED) in men. Common treatments for aortoiliac occlusive disease include drugs, exercise, and surgery.
586) Immune Thrombocytopenia
(ITP) is a disorder that can lead to easy or excessive bruising and bleeding. The bleeding results from unusually low levels of platelets — the cells that help blood clot. Symptoms: Easy or excessive bruising. Superficial bleeding into the skin that appears as pinpoint-sized reddish-purple spots (petechiae) that look like a rash, usually on the lower legs. Bleeding from the gums or nose. Blood in urine or stools. Unusually heavy menstrual flow.
587) Immune-Mediated Adverse Reaction
(IMARs) are most commonly gastrointestinal, respiratory, endocrine or dermatologic. Although patients’ presentations may appear similar to other types of cancer therapy, the underlying causes, and consequently their management, may differ.
588) Immune-Mediated Cholangitis
Immune-mediated cholangiopathies comprise primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and IgG4-associated cholangitis (IAC). A common feature is the progressive destruction of bile ducts leading to cholestasis with fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver over time.
589) Immune-Mediated Cholestasis
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are rare, autoimmune mediated cholestatic liver diseases. Other auto-immune diseases are often associated with PBC and PSC, and inflammatory bowel disease is present in the majority of PSC patients.
590) Immune-Mediated Cytopenia
Autoimmune cytopenias are a group of heterogeneous but closely related conditions defined by immune-mediated destruction of hematologic cell lineages, including white blood cells (neutrophils), red blood cells, and platelets. This destruction can be primary or secondary to other illnesses
591) Immune-Mediated Encephalitis
Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a type of brain inflammation where the body’s immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues in the brain or spinal cord. It is a rare, complex disease that can cause rapid changes in both physical and mental health. The symptoms: Impaired memory and understanding. Unusual and involuntary movements. Involuntary movements of the face (facial dyskinesia). Difficulty with balance, speech or vision. Insomnia. Weakness or numbness. Seizures. Severe anxiety or panic attacks.
592) Immune-Mediated Encephalopathy
(AE) is a type of brain inflammation where the body’s immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues in the brain or spinal cord. It is a rare, complex disease that can cause rapid changes in both physical and mental health.
593) Immune-Mediated Endocrinopathy
Immune-mediated endocrinopathies as a consequence of treatment with checkpoint inhibitors include hypophysitis, adrenalitis, thyroiditis and diabetes mellitus. These can be life-threatening if not recognised and treated appropriately; deaths have been reported.
594) Immune-Mediated Gastritis
Autoimmune gastritis (AG) is an immune-mediated disease, restricted to oxyntic (acid-producing) mucosa in the corpus (anatomic body and fundus) of the stomach. 1. Normally, the parietal cells in the oxyntic mucosa produce hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor.
595) Immune-Mediated Hepatic Disorder
Immune-mediated liver diseases arise from an attack by the immune system directed against different cell types in the liver. Diverse mechanisms of these immunological processes result in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) or autoimmune hepatitis (AIH).
596) Immune-Mediated Hepatitis
Symptoms: Fatigue. Abdominal discomfort. Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice). An enlarged liver. Abnormal blood vessels on the skin (spider angiomas). Skin rashes. Joint pains. Loss of menstrual periods.
597) Immune-Mediated Hyperthyroidism
Resulting from the activity of the immune system : mediated by the immune response immune-mediated disorders The viral protein could make even uninfected cells into targets for immune-mediated killing. (overactive thyroid) occurs when your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. Hyperthyroidism can accelerate your body’s metabolism, causing unintentional weight loss and a rapid or irregular heartbeat. Several treatments are available for hyperthyroidism. Symptoms: Weight loss.
598) Immune-Mediated Hypothyroidism
It occurs when your body makes antibodies that attack the cells in your thyroid. The thyroid then can’t make enough of the thyroid hormone. Many people with this problem have an underactive thyroid gland. Acquired hypothyroidism, sometimes called Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, is a condition that does not allow the thyroid gland to make enough thyroid hormone. The thyroid gland is found in the neck and is shaped like a butterfly. Thyroid hormones help with energy level and help the heart, liver, kidney and skin.
599) Immune-Mediated Myocarditis
Immune-mediated myocarditis has a heterogeneous clinical presentation including reduced EF, CCF, arrhythmias, dyspnoea, palpitations, nausea, fatigue, weight loss, and/or chest pain. Symptoms: Chest pain; Rapid or irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias); Shortness of breath, at rest or during activity; Fluid buildup with swelling of the legs, ankles and feet; Fatigue; Other signs and symptoms of a viral infection such as a headache, body aches, joint pain, fever, a sore throat or diarrhea.
600) Immune-Mediated Myositis
(IMM) is an autoimmune disease that causes rapid onset of muscle atrophy (wasting) along the topline and hindquarters. This can result in the loss of 40% of muscle mass within 48 hours that can persist for months. The disease has been identified in Quarter Horses and related breeds. Immune-mediated myopathies (IMMs) are a heterogeneous group of acquired muscle disorders characterized by muscle weakness, elevated creatine kinase levels, and myopathic electromyographic findings. Most IMMs feature the presence of inflammatory infiltrates in muscle.
601) Immune-Mediated Nephritis
Immune mediated nephropathy is one of the most serious manifestations of lupus and is characterized by severe inflammation and necrosis that, if untreated, eventually leads to renal failure. the signs and symptoms of nephritis? The symptoms of acute nephritis: pain in the pelvis, pain or a burning sensation while urinating, a frequent need to urinate, cloudy urine.
Blood or pus in the urine, pain in the kidney area or abdomen, swelling of the body, commonly in the face, legs, and feet, vomiting.
602) Immune-Mediated Neuropathy
Represent a heterogeneous spectrum of peripheral nerve disorders that can be classified according to time course, predominant involvement of motor/sensory fibers, distribution of deficits and paraclinical parameters such as electrophysiology and serum antibodies.
603) Immune-Mediated Pancreatitis
Autoimmune pancreatitis is an uncommon type of pancreatitis in which your immune system attacks healthy tissue in your pancreas. This can lead to symptoms like jaundice, fatigue, and pain in your upper abdomen. Corticosteroids are typically very effective at treating autoimmune pancreatitis.
604) Immune-Mediated Pneumonitis
(IMP) is an uncommon but potentially fatal toxicity of anti–programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) therapy for non-small cell lung cancer. The purpose of study was to compare clinical and radiographic findings between IMP and pneumonia by pathogen.
605) Immune-Mediated Renal Disorder
The major clinical syndromes produced by immune-mediated renal injury include the nephrotic syndrome, the nephritic syndrome, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, and acute renal failure. The notion of clinical syndromes facilitates diagnosis and treatment, but does not accurately define disease pathogenesis.
606) Immune-Mediated Thyroiditis
An immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) is any of a group of conditions or diseases that lack a definitive etiology, but which are characterized by common inflammatory pathways leading to inflammation, and which may result from, or be triggered by, a dysregulation of the normal immune response.
607) Immune-Mediated Uveitis
AbstractImmune-mediated uveitis is a collective term referring to a group of potentially blinding intraocular inflammations which may coexist with systemic inflammatory diseases. T lymphocytes appear to play an important pathogenic role in uveitis, and these cells are therefore the logical target of drug therapy. The signs, symptoms and characteristics of uveitis may include: Eye redness; Eye pain; Light sensitivity; Blurred vision; Dark, floating spots in your field of vision (floaters); Decreased vision.
608) Immunoglobulin G4 Related Disease
Is a systemic immune-mediated fibroinflammatory disease that presents as organ dysfunction or mass lesions with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in single or multiple organs. It can result in organ failure or death if untreated.
609) Immunoglobulins Abnormal
If your immunoglobulin levels are too high, it may be a sign of an autoimmune disease, a chronic illness, an infection, or a type of cancer. Having an IgA deficiency means that you have low levels of or no IgA in your blood. IgA is found in mucous membranes, mainly in the respiratory and digestive tracts. It is also found saliva, tears, and breastmilk. A deficiency seems to play a part in asthma and allergies.
610) Implant Site Thrombosis
NEXPLANON may increase your chance of serious blood clots, especially if you have other risk factors such as smoking. It is possible to die from a problem caused by a blood clot, such as a heart attack or a stroke. Some examples of serious blood clots are blood clots in the: Legs (deep vein thrombosis). A clot is good when there is damage to the vascular tissue, but it is dangerous if it forms in a healthy blood vessel. In this case it is called a thrombus.
611) Inclusion Body Myositis
(IBM) is a progressive muscle disorder characterized by muscle inflammation, weakness, and atrophy (wasting). It is a type of inflammatory myopathy. IBM develops in adulthood, usually after age 50. The symptoms and rate of progression vary from person to person. sIBM is not considered a fatal disorder, but the risk of serious injury due to falls is increased. Death in IBM is sometimes related to malnutrition and respiratory failure. There is no effective treatment for the disease.
612) Infantile Genetic Agranulocytosis
An inherited disorder in which there is a lower-than-normal number of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell that is important in fighting infections). Newborns with this condition have recurring infections, fevers, inflammation and problems with their bones.
613) Infantile Spasms
Is a seizure with sudden stiffening of the body and brief bending forward or backward of the arms, legs and head. Each seizure lasts only a second or two and usually in a series. Seizures are most common just after waking up and rarely occur during sleep. During an infantile spasm, your baby’s body will stiffen or tense up suddenly and only for a couple of seconds. They may also arch their back, and their arms, legs and/or head may bend forward. Subtle signs of an infantile spasm include: Eyes rolling up; Belly tensing up; Chin movements; Grimacing; Head nodding.
614) Infected Vasculitis
Vasculitis means inflammation of the blood vessels. This may be triggered by an infection or a medicine, although often the cause is unknown. Vasculitis can range from a minor problem that just affects the skin, to a more serious illness that causes problems with organs like the heart or kidneys.
615) Infective Thrombosis
Suppurative (septic) thrombophlebitis describes thrombosis in a vein that occurs in the setting of inflammation and infection. This condition is characterized by the presence of a thrombus that is associated with inflammation and pus formation (suppuration) both in the venous wall and surrounding the vessel.
When your body encounters an offending agent (like viruses, bacteria or toxic chemicals) or suffers an injury, it activates your immune system. Your immune system sends out its first responders: inflammatory cells and cytokines (substances that stimulate more inflammatory cells). Symptoms of inflammation include: Redness. A swollen joint that may be warm to the touch. Joint pain.
617) Inflammatory Bowel Disease
(IBD) is a term for two conditions (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis) that are characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. 1 Prolonged inflammation results in damage to the GI tract. Symptoms of IBD: pain, cramps or swelling in the tummy. Recurring or bloody diarrhoea. weight loss. extreme tiredness.
618) Infusion Site Thrombosis
The best infusion sites, the parts of your body you attach the infusion set to, are parts of the body with a good layer of fat under the skin. Good places tend to be the abdomen, thighs, buttocks, hips, upper arms and either side of the lower back. Symptoms: Pain. Swelling. Warmth. Redness. Leg cramps, often starting in the calf. Leg pain that worsens when bending the foot. Bluish or whitish skin discoloration.
619) Infusion Site Vasculitis
For more severe forms of vasculitis, such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis, your doctor may prescribe intravenous (IV) infusions of a protein called immunoglobulin. In this form of immunotherapy, healthy antibodies are collected from blood that has been provided by donors.
Common vasculitis skin lesions are: red or purple dots (petechiae), usually most numerous on the legs. larger spots, about the size of the end of a finger (purpura), some of which look like large bruises. Less common vasculitis lesions are hives, an itchy lumpy rash and painful or tender lumps.
620) Injection Site Thrombosis
Lovenox (enoxaparin sodium) Injection is an anticoagulant (blood thinner) used to prevent blood clots that are sometimes called deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which can lead to blood clots in the lungs. A DVT can occur after certain types of surgery, or in people who are bed-ridden due to a prolonged illness.
621) Injection Site Urticaria
Injection site reactions (ISRs) are a local phenomenon defined as a constellation of symptoms, including swelling, erythema, pruritus, and pain around the site of injection. The most common cause is the skin’s response to the needle or the medicine. Less common causes include an allergic reaction to the medicine. Or you may have an infection at the injection site. The symptoms of hives (urticaria): Red, raised welts or bumps on the skin. Blanching (the center of the hive turns white when pressed). Itchy skin. Swelling (angioedema).
622) Injection Site Vasculitis
Vasculitis means inflammation of the blood vessels. This may be triggered by an infection or a medicine, although often the cause is unknown. Vasculitis can range from a minor problem that just affects the skin, to a more serious illness that causes problems with organs like the heart or kidneys.
623) Instillation Site Thrombosis
Occurs when blood clots block veins or arteries. Symptoms include pain and swelling in one leg, chest pain, or numbness on one side of the body. Complications of thrombosis can be life-threatening, such as a stroke or heart attack.
624) Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome
Is a rare condition that causes low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). This occurs because the body begins to make a specific kind of protein called antibodies to attack insulin. Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone that is responsible for keeping blood sugar at a normal level. IAS is caused by the presence of large amounts of IAA, an autoantibody against insulin in the circulation. IAA can be found in some individuals with an established autoimmunity (53), and in patients with DM-1, especially those who develop the disease at a younger age. Symptoms. The symptoms of insulin autoimmune syndrome are similar to those of other disorders that cause low blood sugar. These symptoms include sweating, fainting, lightheadedness, weakness, and fatigue.
625) Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis
(IGD) is a rare disease that clinically presents with a pruritic and painful rash revealing symmetric, erythematous, and violaceous plaques over the lateral trunk, buttocks, and thighs. Fewer than 70 cases have been documented in the literature. The features of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis are variable. The shape of the lesions may be round, annular or cord-like. Lesions wax and wane, and may vary in size and shape over days to months. They are usually symptomless, but some patients complain of mild itch or burning sensation.
626) Interstitial Lung Disease
(ILD) is an umbrella term used for a large group of diseases that cause scarring (fibrosis) of the lungs. The scarring causes stiffness in the lungs which makes it difficult to breathe and get oxygen to the bloodstream. Lung damage from ILDs is often irreversible and gets worse over time. Some types of interstitial lung disease include: Interstitial pneumonia; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis; Hypersensitivity pneumonitis; Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP); Acute interstitial pneumonitis; Desquamative interstitial pneumonitis; Sarcoidosis.
627) Intracardiac Mass
Visualized by echocardiography are most commonly due to thrombi, vegetations, or myxomas; however, a host of other masses occur in the heart as a consequence of benign and malignant tumors.
628) Intracardiac Thrombus
Is a common cause of cardiogenic cerebral ischaemia. Stroke recurrence is high, but thrombus detection with therapeutic intervention can reduce the risk. Accurate detection requires transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE), which is semi-invasive and costly. They can occur following myocardial infarction with ventricular thrombus formation, or with atrial fibrillation and mitral stenosis where atrial thrombi predominate. Thrombi in the chambers of the left heart are a common source of complications like stroke and other arterial embolic syndromes.
629) Intracranial Pressure Increased
A brain injury or another medical condition can cause growing pressure inside your skull. This dangerous condition is called increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and can lead to a headache. The pressure also further injure your brain or spinal cord. Increased ICP is when the pressure inside a person’s skull increases. When this happens suddenly, it is a medical emergency. The most common cause of high ICP is a blow to the head. The main symptoms are headache, confusion, decreased alertness, and nausea.
630) Intrapericardial Thrombosis
Intrapericardial thrombus, or clot, may arise in several situations. If the amount of thrombus is sufficient, it may result in compression of the underlying cardiac chambers or vessels within the pericardial space.
Abstract. Background: Intracardiac thrombus is a common cause of cardiogenic cerebral ischaemia. Stroke recurrence is high, but thrombus detection with therapeutic intervention can reduce the risk. Accurate detection requires transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE), which is semi-invasive and costly.
631) Intrinsic Factor Antibody Abnormal
Without sufficient intrinsic factor, vitamin B12 goes largely unabsorbed and the body cannot produce enough normal red blood cells, leading to anemia. Besides anemia, decrease in the numbers of neutrophils and platelets may also occur. Anemia that is due to a lack of intrinsic factor is called pernicious anemia.
632) Intrinsic Factor Antibody Positive
The presence of Intrinsic Factor Antibodies (IFAB) as well as megaloblastic anaemia and low serum vitamin B12 are diagnostic of pernicious anaemia. A positive Intrinsic Factor antibody result can exclude the need for further testing, such as the Schillings test. A decreased vitamin B12 level and/or increased methylmalonic acid and homocysteine levels as well as a positive test result for intrinsic factor antibodies and/or parietal cell antibodies means that it is likely that the person tested has pernicious anemia.
633) Ipex Syndrome
IPEX is a genetic disease of immune dysregulation in which patients can present early in life with diarrhea, diabetes and eczema. The symptoms of IPEX syndrome include severe diarrhea, diabetes, skin conditions (such as eczema, erythroderma, or psoriasis), and thyroid disease (thyroiditis). IPEX syndrome is caused by changes ( mutations ) of the FOXP3 gene , which is located on the X chromosome .
634) Irregular Breathing
Shortness of breath is often a symptom of heart and lung problems. But it can also be a sign of other conditions like asthma, allergies or anxiety. Intense exercise or having a cold can also make you feel breathless. Symptoms to be aware of include: fever, pain or pressure in the chest, wheezing, tightness in the throat, a barking cough, shortness of breath that requires you to sit up constantly, shortness of breath that wakes you up during the night.
635) Irvan Syndrome
Is an acronym for “idiopathic retinal vasculitis-aneurysms-neuroretinitis syndrome,” a condition that primarily affects the eyes. Although this condition can occur in people of all ages, it is most commonly diagnosed in the third or fourth decade of life.
636) Ivth Nerve Paralysis
Fourth nerve palsy means that a certain muscle in your eye is paralyzed. It is caused by disease or injury to the fourth cranial nerve. In children, it is most often present at birth (congenital). In adults, it is most often caused by injury. Many cases of fourth nerve palsy are idiopathic. See your healthcare provider if you develop double vision. This could be a symptom of a fourth nerve palsy or another serious condition. Having double vision and a sudden severe headache could be a symptom of a stroke. Call 911 right away if you think you may be having a stroke.
637) Ivth Nerve Paresis
Fourth nerve palsy means that a certain muscle in your eye is paralyzed. It is caused by disease or injury to the fourth cranial nerve. In children, it is most often present at birth (congenital). In adults, it is most often caused by injury.
638) Jc Polyomavirus Test Positive
If the blood test finds JC virus (JCV positive), this indicates that you are at a higher risk of developing PML, although for most people the risk is still small.The JC virus can be activated when a person’s immune system is compromised because of disease or immunosuppressive medication. The virus can then be carried into the brain.
639) Jc Virus Csf Test Positive
A positive CSF JCV PCR had a PPV of 10.4% for the diagnosis of PML. A weakly positive PCR had a PPV of 1.6%, whereas a moderately to highly positive PCR had a PPV of 92.3%. A PPV of 0.0% was observed in immunocompetent patients and in patients without compatible clinical or radiological features. In people with very weak immune systems, the virus can bring on a serious brain infection called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML damages the outer coating of your nerve cells. It can cause permanent disabilities and can even be deadly.
640) Jeavons Syndrome
Is a type of epilepsy. It is one of the most distinctive reflex syndromes of idiopathic generalized epilepsy characterized by the triad of eyelid myoclonia with and without absences, eye-closure-induced seizures, EEG paroxysms, or both, and photosensitivity. These consist of brief and repeated myoclonic jerks of the eyelids, eyeballs roll upwards, and the head may move slightly backwards. These events usually last less than 6 seconds but can happen many times per day. They are often induced or brought about by flashing lights or closing the eyes.
641) Jugular Vein Embolism
Internal jugular vein thrombosis is asymptomatic in most patients. Clinicians should carefully evaluate swelling, erythema, or tenderness in the angle of the jaw or the side of the neck. Complications such as pulmonary embolism although rare but can occur. Blood clots can cause swelling in the veins of your neck or arms, but this is rare.You can experience the following symptoms near the affected area if you have either kind of thrombophlebitis: Pain; warmth; tenderness; swelling; redness.
642) Jugular Vein Thrombosis
(IJV) thrombosis is an extremely rare vascular disease. It is usually secondary to intravenous drug abuse, prolonged central venous catheterization or deep head-neck infections or trauma. Associated malignancies are uncommon and not well documented in the etiology of IJV thrombosis. Common symptoms of IJVthr are neck pain and headache, whereas, swelling, erythema and the palpable cord sign beneath the sternocleidomastoid muscle, frequently associated with fever, are the most reported clinical signs.
643) Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
(JIA) is a form of arthritis in children. Arthritis causes joint swelling (inflammation) and joint stiffness. Symptoms of juvenile arthritis may include: Joint stiffness, especially in the morning. Pain, swelling, and tenderness in the joints. Limping (In younger children, it may appear that the child is not able to perform motor skills they recently learned.)Persistent fever. Rash. Weight loss. Fatigue. Irritability.
644) Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy
Is an epilepsy syndrome characterized by myoclonic jerks (quick jerks of the arms or legs), generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs), and sometimes, absence seizures. The seizures of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy often occur when people first awaken in the morning. The Signs & Symptoms of a Juvenile Myoclonic Seizure：has brief muscle twitches or jerks in the upper arms, shoulders, or neck， has movements on one or both sides of the body at the same time，usually is awake and can think clearly during and right after the seizure.
645) Juvenile Polymyositis
The common symptoms of polymyositis include: Muscle pain and stiffness. Muscle weakness, particularly in the belly (abdomen), shoulders, upper arms, and hips. Joint pain and stiffness. Trouble catching your breath. Problems with swallowing.Irregular heart rhythms, if the heart muscle becomes inflamed. The symptoms of juvenile polymyositis：Shortness of breath.Difficulty swallowing.Voice changes.Calcium deposits in the muscles.Fever. Weight loss.
646) Juvenile Psoriatic Arthritis
Is a subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis that is characterized by both arthritis and psoriasis. Other signs and symptoms may include dactylitis (inflammation and swelling of an entire finger or toe); nail pitting or splitting; and eye problems. Symptoms：swollen, red, and painful joints, especially in the fingers and toes，stiffness in the morning， swelling in the hands that makes the fingers and toes look like sausages， a red, itchy, and scaly rash on the knees, elbows, scalp, face, and buttocks， joints that are deformed from swelling.
647) Juvenile Spondyloarthritis
(SpA) is a distinct form of juvenile arthritis characterized by male predominance and adolescent onset. Clinical manifestations include lower extremity and sacroiliac joint arthritis, enthesitis, and subclinical gastrointestinal inflammation. Symptoms of spondyloarthritis vary between patients but may include: Longstanding low back pain. Back stiffness. Back pain and stiffness are typically worse at night and improve with exercise. Fatigue. Painful swelling of joints. Sausage-like appearance of fingers or toes. Heel pain. Skin and nail changes of psoriasis.
648) Kaposi Sarcoma Inflammatory Cytokine Syndrome
Is a newly recognized disease caused by Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). This virus can cause cancer. People with KICS can have severe symptoms. They include fever, weight loss, and fluid in the legs or abdomen.
649) Kawasaki’s Disease
(KD), also known as Kawasaki syndrome, is an acute febrile illness of unknown cause that primarily affects children younger than 5 years of age. Clinical signs include fever, rash, swelling of the hands and feet, irritation and redness of the whites of the eyes, swollen lymph glands in the neck, and irritation and inflammation of the mouth, lips, and throat. Kawasaki disease primarily affects children younger than 5 years of age.
650) Kayser-Fleischer Ring
Are dark rings that appear to encircle the iris of the eye. They are due to copper deposition in part of the cornea (Descemet’s membrane) as a result of particular liver diseases. It do not cause any symptoms. It is usually seen as a golden, brown ring in the peripheral cornea. It starts at Schwalbe’s line and extends less than 5 mm onto the cornea. The ring may appear as greenish-yellow, ruby red, bright green, or ultramarine blue.
651) Keratoderma Blenorrhagica
A thickening and keratinization of the skin that generally involves the feet, hands, and nails that resemble psoriasis clinically and on histopathology.
The lesion is usually painless and sterile unless a superimposed infection occurs. Keratoderma blennorrhagica is seen on the soles or palms of affected individuals. It is manifested as a painless desquamative psoriatic-like papulosquamous eruption and is sometimes referred to as pustulosis palmoplantaris.
652) Ketosis-Prone Diabetes Mellitus
Is defined as a hybrid form of diabetes mellitus, which is predominantly seen in overweight-to-obese men. Although the diagnosis is based on diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) as a presenting feature, which also is characteristic of type 1 diabetes, the course of the disease differs from type 1. It is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can’t produce enough insulin.
653) Kounis Syndrome
Is the concurrence of acute coronary syndromes with conditions associated with mast cell activation, such as allergies or hypersensitivity and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults that can involve other interrelated and interacting inflammatory cells behaving as a ‘ball of thread’.
654) Lafora’s Myoclonic Epilepsy
Lafora disease is an inherited , severe form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy. The condition most commonly begins with epileptic seizures in late childhood or adolescence. Other signs and symptoms include difficulty walking, muscle spasms (myoclonus) and dementia .
655) Lambl’s Excrescences
(LEs) are unusual, yet significant etiology of thromboembolism. LEs are fibrous valvular strands typically occurring at coaptation lines of the left-sided valves. These occur from wear and tear of the valves and comprise of a dense core of collagenous and elastic fibrils enclosed by endothelium.
656) Laryngeal Dyspnoea
Is a life-threatening emergency situation. The diagnosis is clinical and made from the association of: inspiratory bradypnea, intercostal and sus-sternal inspiratory depression, with or without stridor. Laryngeal dystonia symptom: Voice breaks up. Voice sounds breathy, whispery, strangled, or tight. Vocal tremor. Hoarse voice. Jerky voice. Tremulous voice. Intermittent voice breaks. The effort required to produce voice.
657) Laryngeal Oedema
(LE) is a frequent complication of intubation and is caused by trauma to the larynx. The edema results in a decreased size of the laryngeal lumen, which may present as stridor or respiratory distress (or both) following extubation. The clinical signs of laryngeal edema were dysphagia; the sensation of a lump in the throat; a feeling of tightness in the throat; voice changes, including hoarseness and roughness; and dyspnea. In patients with progressed laryngeal edema, mostly fear of asphyxiation and aphonia also occurred.
658) Laryngeal Rheumatoid Arthritis
Is cricoarytenoid arthritis resulting from longstanding rheumatoid disease, which induces impaired arytenoid motion caused by pathologic changes such as synovial inflammation and thickening with eventual pannus formation and destruction of the articular cartilage.
Is a transient and reversible spasm of the vocal cords that temporarily makes it difficult to speak or breathe. The vocal cords are two fibrous bands inside the voice box (larynx) at the top of the windpipe (trachea). Laryngospasm is identified by varying degrees of airway obstruction with paradoxical chest movement, intercostal recession and tracheal tug. A characteristic crowing noise may be heard in partial laryngospasm but will be absent in complete laryngospasm.
659) Laryngotracheal Oedema
Is a frequent complication of intubation and is caused by trauma to the larynx. The edema results in a decreased size of the laryngeal lumen, which may present as stridor or respiratory distress (or both) following extubation. The clinical signs of laryngeal edema were dysphagia; the sensation of a lump in the throat; a feeling of tightness in the throat; voice changes, including hoarseness and roughness; and dyspnea. In patients with progressed laryngeal edema, mostly fear of asphyxiation and aphonia also occurred.
660) Latent Autoimmune Diabetes In Adults
(LADA) is a slow-progressing form of autoimmune diabetes. Like the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes, LADA occurs because your pancreas stops producing adequate insulin, most likely from some “insult” that slowly damages the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. LADA symptoms are similar to those of type 1 or 2 diabetes. You may get thirsty, need to pee often, get blurry vision, or lose weight even though your appetite goes up. You may also have symptoms like: Frequent infections.Weakness and fatigue. Dry, itchy skin. Tingling in your hands or feet.
661) Le Cells Present
Also known as Hargraves cell, is a neutrophil or macrophage that has phagocytized (engulfed) the denatured nuclear material of another cell. The denatured material is an absorbed hematoxylin body (also called an LE body). They are a characteristic of lupus erythematosus, but also found in similar connective tissue disorders or some autoimmune diseases like in severe rheumatoid arthritis. LE cells can be observed in drug-induced lupus, for example, following treatment with methyldopa.
662) Lemierre Syndrome
Is a severe illness caused by the anaerobic bacterium, Fusobacterium necrophorum which typically occurs in healthy teenagers and young adults. The infection originates in the throat and spreads via a septic thrombophlebitis of the tonsillar vein and internal jugular vein. Symptoms: swelling in your neck around your lymph nodes, abnormal headaches, pains that feel like they’re shooting down your neck, high fever, feeling stiff, weak, or exhausted, feeling more sensitive to light than usual (known as photophobia), trouble breathing, trouble swallowing.
663) Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome
Epilepsy begins in early childhood, usually between ages 3 and 5. The most common seizure type is tonic seizures, which cause the muscles to stiffen (contract) uncontrollably. These seizures typically occur during sleep; they may also occur during wakefulness and cause sudden falls. Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome: Tonic – stiffening of the body. Atonic – temporary loss of muscle tone and consciousness, causing the patient to fall. Atypical absence – staring episodes. Myoclonic – sudden muscle jerks.
664) Leucine Aminopeptidase Increased
(LAP) test is used to identify catalase-negative gram-positive cocci. Specifically, it differentiates Aerococcus and Leuconostoc from Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, and Pediococcus. The LAP disk is a rapid test for the detection of the enzyme leucine aminopeptidase.
Inflammation of the white matter of the brain. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a disease of the white matter of the brain, caused by a virus infection that targets cells that make myelin–the material that insulates nerve cells (neurons).
With vanishing white matter is a progressive disorder that mainly affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). This disorder causes deterioration of the central nervous system’s white matter, which consists of nerve fibers covered by myelin. Symptoms: Clumsiness or loss of coordination. Difficulty walking. Facial drooping. Loss of vision. Personality changes. Trouble speaking. Weak muscles.
Can be related to a number of factors including: Aplastic anemia – A condition where the bone marrow doesn’t produce new blood cells. Autoimmune disorders – Conditions that attack the white blood cells or bone marrow cells, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis. The symptoms of leukopenia: a fever of 100.4˚F (38˚C) or above, chills, sweating, sore throat, cough or shortness of breath, an area of your body that’s become red, swollen, or painful, an injury that’s draining pus, mouth sores or white patches in your mouth.
668) Leukopenia Neonatal
A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells (leukocytes) in your blood. Leukopenia is almost always related to a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical practice to another.
669) Lewis-Sumner Syndrome
(LSS) is considered an asymmetric sensory-motor variant of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP), mostly affecting the limbs distally, with electrophysiological evidence of multifocal motor conduction blocks. Cranial nerve involvement is present in a minority. The signs and symptoms of Lewis-Sumner syndrome present during adulthood and include hand and arm weakness, a loss of reflexes in the upper limbs (areflexia), loss of feeling in the hands and fingers (neuropathy), and tingling in the hands and fingers (paresthesias).
670) Lhermitte’s Sign
Is a short, intense sensation that feels similar to an electric shock passing down the neck and spine and radiating through the trunk and limbs. It can occur with multiple sclerosis (MS), but it can also affect people who do not have MS. Lhermitte’s sign (also known as Lhermitte’s phenomenon and the barber chair phenomenon) describes a transient sensation of an electric shock extending down the spine and/or extremities upon flexion of the neck, often a sequela of neurologic disease.
671) Lichen Planopilaris
Is a rare inflammatory condition that results in patchy progressive permanent hair loss mainly on the scalp. It is thought to be an auto-immune disorder of the hair follicles. A diagnosis of LPP is made based on a clinical exam and microscopic examination of a piece of tissue from the affected area. Purplish, flat bumps, most often on the inner forearm, wrist or ankle, and sometimes the genitals. Itching. Blisters that break to form scabs or crusts. Lacy white patches in the mouth or on the lips or tongue.
672) Lichen Planus
Is a common disease that causes inflammation (swelling and irritation) on your skin or inside your mouth. On your skin, lichen planus causes a rash that is usually itchy. Inside your mouth, it may cause burning or soreness.Symptoms: Purplish, flat bumps, most often on the inner forearm, wrist or ankle, and sometimes the genitals. Itching. Blisters that break to form scabs or crusts. Lacy white patches in the mouth or on the lips or tongue. Painful sores in the mouth or vagina. Hair loss. Change in scalp color. Nail damage or loss.
673) Lichen Sclerosus
(LIE-kun skluh-ROW-sus) is an uncommon condition that creates patchy, white skin that appears thinner than normal. It usually affects the genital and anal areas. Anyone can get lichen sclerosus but postmenopausal women are at higher risk. Lichen sclerosus in genital area: Redness.Itching (pruritus), which can be severe. Discomfort or pain. Smooth white patches on your skin. Blotchy, wrinkled patches. Tearing or bleeding. In severe cases, bleeding, blistering or ulcerated sores.Painful sex.
674) Limbic Encephalitis
Is a form of encephalitis, a disease characterized by inflammation of the brain. Limbic encephalitis is caused by autoimmunity: an abnormal state where the body produces antibodies against itself. Some cases are associated with cancer and some are not. A variety of symptoms may be associated with limbic encephalitis such as anterograde amnesia (the inability to store new memories after the onset of the condition), anxiety, depression, irritability, personality change, acute confusional state, hallucinations and seizures .
675) Linear Iga Disease
(LAD) is a blistering disorder characterized by linear deposits of IgA at the basement membrane zone (BMZ).  Though LAD is usually idiopathic, infections and drugs are also implicated as probable causes. Mucosal involvement is common occurring in 80% of adults. In Linear IgA Disease multiple tense blisters with a clear fluid appear over parts of the body. The blisters can vary in size and the skin may appear red around the blisters. Blisters often occur in clusters giving a “cluster of jewels” or “string of beads” appearance.
676) Lip Oedema
Is an abnormal build-up of fat in your legs and sometimes arms. Symptoms of lipoedema: your legs appear symmetrically swollen – swelling can occur from the hips down to the ankles and your legs appear column-like; the feet are not usually affected, affected areas feel ‘spongy’ and cool and the skin is generally soft and subtle, you bruise easily in the affected areas.
677) Lip Swelling
Are caused by underlying inflammation or a buildup of fluid under the skin of your lips. There are several reasons as to why lips become swollen, but in most cases, it is not serious and will disappear on its own. Anyone with swollen lips should see a doctor if they are experiencing severe symptoms, such as those associated with anaphylaxis.
678) Liver Function Test Abnormal
Elevated levels of bilirubin (jaundice) might indicate liver damage or disease or certain types of anemia. Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). GGT is an enzyme in the blood. Higher-than-normal levels may indicate liver or bile duct damage. Your liver function tests can be abnormal because: Your liver is inflamed (for example, by infection, toxic substances like alcohol and some medicines, or by an immune condition). Your liver cells have been damaged (for example, by toxic substances, such as alcohol, paracetamol, poisons).
679) Liver Function Test Decreased
Parasites and viruses can infect the liver, causing inflammation that reduces liver function. The viruses that cause liver damage can be spread through blood or semen, contaminated food or water, or close contact with a person who is infected. Acute liver failure is loss of liver function that occurs rapidly — in days or weeks — usually in a person who has no preexisting liver disease. It’s most commonly caused by a hepatitis virus or drugs, such as acetaminophen. Acute liver failure is less common than chronic liver failure, which develops more slowly.
680) Liver Function Test Increased
Elevated liver enzymes often indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or injured liver cells leak higher than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, elevating liver enzymes on blood tests.The most common causes of elevated transaminase levels are nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease. Uncommon causes include drug-induced liver injury, hepatitis B and C, and hereditary hemochromatosis.
681) Liver Induration
The liver is usually indurated shrunken and yellowish-tan but it may be enlarged and yellow as in alcoholic fatty cirrhosis, rusty as in hemochromatosis or large and green as in biliary obstruction. Induration: the process of or condition produced by growing hard specifically : sclerosis especially when associated with inflammation.
682) Liver Injury
Is defined by an increase of over two times the upper limit of normal range (2N) in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or conjugated bilirubin, or a combined increase of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AP), and total bilirubin, provided one of them is above 2N. The signs and symptoms of an injured liver include: Abdominal pain.Guarding (holding hand over the area) Tenderness in the upper right part of the abdomen. Right shoulder pain and signs of shock and blood loss.
683) Liver Iron Concentration Abnormal
What is liver iron concentration? Normal LIC ranges from 0.2 mg Fe/g dry weight (3.6 μmol Fe/kg dry weight) to 2 mg Fe/g dry weight (36 μmol Fe/kg dry weight). Iron overload is defined as iron that exceeds the upper limit of normal. The risk of complications related to fibrosis and cirrhosis increases when there is significant iron overload, which is defined as hepatic iron concentration (HIC) greater than three times the upper limit of normal (greater than 90 micromol/g dry weight).
684) Liver Iron Concentration Increased
Elevated liver iron concentration was associated with an increased rate of morbidity in patients with phenotypes of all severity, with a steeper increase in the rate of vascular morbidity being attributed to aging, and an earlier appearance of endocrine and bone disease.
685) Liver Opacity
The normal liver is of soft tissue opacity. Mineral opacities can occur in the hepatic parenchyma or biliary system. Choleliths should be considered when focal mineral opacities are visible in the area of the gallbladder. If signs and symptoms of liver disease do occur, they may include: Skin and eyes that appear yellowish (jaundice) Abdominal pain and swelling. Swelling in the legs and ankles. Itchy skin. Dark urine color. Pale stool color. Chronic fatigue. Nausea or vomiting.
686) Liver Palpable
In the majority of normal examinations the liver is not palpable. Cases in which the normal liver is palpable include emphysema, right-sided pleural effusion, thin body carriage, Riedel’s lobe, or deep diaphragmatic excursion. Symptoms: Abdominal pain. Fatigue. Nausea and vomiting. Yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes (jaundice).
687) Liver Sarcoidosis
Hepatic sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Around 70% of patients have epithelioid non-caseating granulomas on liver biopsy; 20–40% of patients have hepatomegaly or elevated liver enzymes. Most of the cases with liver involvement are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. When symptoms occur, they include jaundice (a yellow skin), itching skin, and pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen where the liver is situated. High blood pressure frequently develops in patients with long-standing disease.
688) Liver Scan Abnormal
What are some common reasons for abnormal liver tests? More common causes of elevated liver enzymes include: Over-the-counter pain medications, particularly acetaminophen (Tylenol, others. Certain prescription medications, including statin drugs used to control cholesterol. Drinking alcohol. Heart failure. Hepatitis A. Hepatitis B. Hepatitis C. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
689) Liver Tenderness
What does it mean if your liver is tender? Liver Abscess or Cyst: A bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infection in your liver can form an abscess, or a pocket of pus. The top right side of your abdomen may be tender. Your doctor may be able to feel that your liver is enlarged. Usually, you’ll also have fever and chills. Tenderness: The normal liver may be slightly tender. Palpation During the Liver Exam: With patient supine, place right hand on patient’s abdomen, just lateral to the rectus abdominis, well below lower border of liver dullness. Ask patient to take a deep breath and try to feel the liver edge as it descends.
690) Low Birth Weight Baby
Is when a baby is born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces. Some low-birthweight babies are healthy, but others have serious health problems that need treatment. Premature birth (before 37 weeks of pregnancy) and fetal growth restriction are the most common causes of low birthweight. Babies with a very low birth weight have a greater risk of developing problems. Their tiny bodies are not as strong as babies of normal weight. They may have a harder time eating, gaining weight, and fighting infection. They have very little body fat.
691) Lower Respiratory Tract Herpes Infection
The respiratory epithelium from the oral mucosa to the alveoli can be infected with HSV. The manifestations can range from a few scattered ulcers in the trachea to a severe ulcerative process resulting in an obstructing, inflammatory tracheobronchial membrane. Focal or diffuse pneumonia can also occur.
692) Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
(RTI) occurs when there is an infection of the lungs, specifically in the lower airways. This infection is usually caused by a virus, but it can also be caused by bacteria or other less common organisms. Common lower RTIs in infants and young children include: Flu. Symptoms: a cough – you may bring up mucus (phlegm), sneezing, a stuffy or runny nose, a sore throat, headaches, muscle aches, breathlessness, tight chest or wheezing, a high temperature.
693) Lower Respiratory Tract Infection Viral
A lower RTI occurs when there is an infection in the lower airways. Common lower RTIs in infants and young children include the flu, viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The main symptoms of a lower RTI are a persistent cough, fever and sometimes difficulty breathing. Symptoms of an RTI include: a cough – you may bring up mucus (phlegm), sneezing, a stuffy or runny nose, a sore throat, headaches, muscle aches, breathlessness, tight chest or wheezing, a high temperature.
694) Lung Abscess
Is a cavity filled with pus. In most cases, it’s the result of a bacterial infection in lung tissue. The infection causes lung tissue to die. Pus collects in the resulting space. A lung abscess can be challenging to treat, and it can also be life threatening. A lung abscess is usually caused by bacteria that normally live in the mouth and are inhaled into the lungs. Symptoms include fatigue, loss of appetite, night sweats, fever, weight loss, and a cough that brings up sputum. Diagnosis is usually determined with a chest x-ray.
695) Lupoid Hepatic Cirrhosis
The term “lupoid hepatitis” was coined in the 1950s to describe cases of young women with chronic active hepatitis characterized by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate on biopsy, hypergammaglobulinemia, and a positive LE cell test in the blood. Symptoms: Fatigue. Abdominal discomfort. Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice). An enlarged liver. Abnormal blood vessels on the skin (spider angiomas). Skin rashes. Joint pains.Loss of menstrual periods.
696) Lupus Cystitis
Is a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is characterized by an increase in bladder wall thickness and may be associated with hydroureteronephrosis. Patients with lupus cystitis generally present with gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting, nausea, and abdominal pain, sometimes mimicking obstructive ileus, or with lower urinary tract symptoms such as dysuria, suprapubic pain, polyuria, urgency, and incontinence.
697) Lupus Encephalitis
Among the neurologic manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the most common are the organic encephalopathies (35–75% of case series), which comprise all potential variations of acute confusion, lethargy, or coma; chronic and subacute dementias. Symptoms include: Confusion and trouble concentrating (sometimes called lupus brain fog). Seizures (sudden, unusual movements or behavior). Stroke (blocked blood flow in the brain that causes brain cells to die)
698) Lupus Endocarditis
Libman-Sacks endocarditis occurs in about 15% of people with lupus. The condition leads to the development of growths called vegetations on the surface of heart valves. Usually this form of endocarditis is associated with antiphospholipid antibodies, which are present in about 50% of people with SLE. Patients may report pain, focal neurologic symptoms (eg, focal weakness and/or numbness, visual loss, dysphasia, dysarthria, dysphagia, memory loss), numbness and discoloration of the extremities, and ischemic chest pain with arterial thromboses.
699) Lupus Enteritis
Is a distinct subset of SLE, defined as either vasculitis or inflammation of the small bowel, with supportive image and/or biopsy findings. The clinical picture of lupus enteritis is often nonspecific, with mild to severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting being the cardinal manifestations.Typical features of lupus enteritis include focal or diffuse bowel-wall thickening, bowel dilation, abnormal bowel wall enhancement (target sign), engorgement of mesenteric vessels with increased number of visible vessels (comb’s sign), increased attenuation of mesenteric fat and ascites.
700) Lupus Hepatitis
SLE-related hepatitis, better known as lupus hepatitis (LH), is a distinct entity that the affects 3–8% of SLE patients and is characterized by subclinical and mild elevation of liver enzymes (6. Liver involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: incidence, clinical course and outcome of lupus hepatitis. Many people with hepatitis don’t notice any symptoms, but some people have these symptoms: Fatigue (feeling tired). Jaundice (yellow skin or eyes). Nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain. Dark urine (pee), Pale or gray stool (poop).
701) Lupus Myocarditis
Is a life threatening complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A case of left ventricular failure secondary to myocarditis occurring in a patient with SLE is reported. Lupus can trigger inflammation of the heart muscle (myocardium). Other symptoms or signs your healthcare provider will look for include: History of preceding viral illness. Fever. Chest pain. Joint pain or swelling. Abnormal heartbeat. Fatigue. Shortness of breath. Leg swelling.
702) Lupus Myositis
Myositis is a rare but well-recognized complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is reputed to be milder than primary myositis in terms of morbidity and treatment response. Some people with lupus develop myositis, an inflammation of the skeletal muscles that causes weakness and loss of strength. Lupus myositis often affects the muscles of your neck, pelvis, thighs, shoulders and upper arms; difficulty in climbing stairs and getting up from a chair are early symptoms.
703) Lupus Nephritis
Is inflammation of the kidney that is caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Also called lupus, SLE is an autoimmune disease. With lupus, the body’s immune system targets its own body tissues. Lupus nephritis happens when lupus involves the kidneys. The symptoms of lupus nephritis: Edema (swelling due to fluid buildup) in your lower body or around your eyes. Fever with no known cause. Hematuria (blood in the urine). High blood pressure. Increased urination, especially at night. Joint pain or swelling. Muscle pain.
704) Lupus Pancreatitis
In 44% of the patients pancreatitis developed within 1 year of the diagnosis of lupus, and 84% had active lupus at the time of pancreatitis. Abdominal pain was the most frequent pancreatitis-related symptom (88%), followed by nausea or vomiting (67%). The clinical features related to acute pancreatitis in these 27 SLE patients were nonspecific. Abdominal pain (92.59%), fever (77.78%) and nausea/vomiting (74.07%), were the most frequent manifestations and other symptoms included diarrhea (44.44%), loss of appetite (44.44%) and GI tract hemorrhage (14.81%).
705) Lupus Pleurisy
The most common way that lupus can affect your lungs is through inflammation of the pleura, the lining that covers the outside of the lungs. The symptom of pleuritis that you may experience is severe, often sharp, stabbing pain in a specific area or areas of your chest. The symptom of pleuritis that you may experience is severe, often sharp, stabbing pain in a specific area or areas of your chest. The pain, which is called pleurisy, is made worse when you take a deep breath, cough, sneeze, or laugh. You may also experience shortness of breath.
706) Lupus Pneumonitis
Is a serious condition that affects anywhere from 1-10% of lupus patients. The condition is characterized by chest pain, shortness of breath, and a dry cough that may bring up blood. The most common symptom of pneumonitis is shortness of breath, which may be accompanied by a dry cough. Symptoms: Shortness of breath. Cough. Fatigue. Loss of appetite. Unintentional weight loss.
707) Lupus Vasculitis
Is an inflammation of the blood vessels. Inflammation is a condition in which tissue is damaged by blood cells entering the tissues. The symptoms of vasculitis: fever, generally feeling bad (malaise), muscle and joint pain, poor appetite, weight loss, fatigue. Nerves – inflammation of the nerves can cause tingling (pins and needles), pain and burning sensations or weakness in the arms and legs. Joints – vasculitis can cause joint pain or swelling. Muscles – inflammation here causes muscle aches, and eventually your muscles could become weak.
708) Lupus-Like Syndrome
Drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DIL) is an autoimmune phenomenon where the patient develops symptoms similar to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) after exposure to certain drugs. While DIL tends to be less severe than SLE, the diagnosis can be challenging. Drug-Induced Lupus Symptoms: Muscle and joint pain; Fatigue; Blurred vision; Fever; General ill feeling (malaise); Joint swelling; Loss of appetite; Pleuritic chest pain.
709) Lymphocytic Hypophysitis
(LH) is a condition in which the pituitary gland becomes infiltrated by lymphocytes , resulting in pituitary enlargement and impaired function. It most often occurs in women in late pregnancy or the postpartum period, but can also occur in prepubertal or post-menopausal women, and in men. It is a neuroendocrine disorder characterized by autoimmune inflammation of the pituitary gland with various degrees of pituitary dysfunction. The exact cause is unknown but is thought to be autoimmune-related. Although some cases resolve on their own or after a short course of steroids, other cases cause persistent problems even with aggressive medical or surgical treatment.
710) Lymphocytopenia Neonatal
Absolute lymphopenia was defined as absolute lymphocyte count <3,000/mm3 in umbilical cord blood sample. Complete blood count was repeated at month 1 in cases found to have lymphopenia. Results: Overall, 2,000 newborns were included in the study. Lymphocytopenia is most often due to AIDS, and recently COVID-19, or undernutrition, but it also may be inherited or caused by various infections, drugs, or autoimmune disorders. Patients have recurrent viral, fungal, or parasitic infections. Lymphocyte subpopulations and immunoglobulin levels should be measured.
(also called lymphocytopenia) is a disorder in which your blood doesn’t have enough white blood cells called lymphocytes. These cells are made in the bone marrow along with other kinds of blood cells. Lymphocytes help protect your body from infection. Lymphocytopenia is most often due to AIDS, and recently COVID-19, or undernutrition, but it also may be inherited or caused by various infections, drugs, or autoimmune disorders. Patients have recurrent viral, fungal, or parasitic infections. Lymphocyte subpopulations and immunoglobulin levels should be measured. The symptoms: fever; cough; runny nose; enlarged lymph nodes; small tonsils or lymph nodes; painful joints; skin rash; night sweats.
712) Magic Syndrome
Is an acronym for mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage syndrome. Patients reported with this syndrome have features characteristic of both Behçet syndrome and relapsing polychondritis. We hereby report a patient with this rare syndrome. Mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage (MAGIC) syndrome refers to a condition in which features of Behcet’s disease (BD) and relapsing polychondritis (RP) occur in the same individual. The existence of MAGIC syndrome suggests a potential common etiology for BD and RP. A rare autoinflammatory syndrome characterized by the presence of features of relapsing polychondritis and Behçet’s disease in the same individual. This includes cartilage inflammation of the ears, nose, throat, and rib cage, as well as recurrent oral and genital ulcers.
713) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Liver Abnormal
MRI, or magnetic resonance imaging, can help detect certain liver disorders that affect this organ. These include hepatitis, hemochromatosis, and fatty liver disease. MRI scans also show blood flow, providing valuable information about any possible disorders of the vascular system associated with the liver.
714) Magnetic Resonance Proton Density Fat Fraction Measurement
Recently, noninvasive quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proton density fat fraction (PDFF) measurements have been shown to help accurately detect and quantify the deposition of triglycerides in the liver (8–14).
715) Mahler Sign
A steady increase of pulse rate without corresponding elevation of temperature; seen in thrombosis. Pain that causes functional impotence, can affect the entire limb, tachycardia without fever is of great value.
716) Marburg’s Variant Multiple Sclerosis
Also known as acute, fulminant, or malignant multiple sclerosis, is characterized by extensive and fulminant acute demyelination, often resulting in death within one year after the onset of clinical signs. Disease progression was most probably consistent with the Marburg variant (malignant form) of multiple sclerosis with rapid deterioration of the patient’s clinical condition, including bulbar symptoms and epileptic paroxysms and ending with persistent coma and tetraparesis.
717) Marchiafava-Bignami Disease
Is a progressive neurological disease of alcohol use disorder, characterized by corpus callosum demyelination and necrosis and subsequent atrophy. The disease was first described in 1903 by the Italian pathologists Amico Bignami and Ettore Marchiafava in an Italian Chianti drinker. The disease seems to most often affect severe and chronic alcoholics in their middle or late adult life. Early symptoms may include depression, paranoia, psychosis, or dementia . Seizures are common, and hemiparesis, aphasia, abnormal movements, and ataxia may sometimes progress to coma and/or death.
718) Marine Lenhart Syndrome
Is a variant of Graves’ disease with incidentally functioning nodule(s) which are responsive to thyroid stimulating hormone but are not responsive to thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins. The coexistence of thyroid functioning nodules and Graves’ disease is called Marine-Lenhart syndrome. This condition is estimated to occur in 0.8-2.7% of patients with Graves’ disease with few cases reported in the literature. Criteria for the diagnosis are not well defined. Ultrasound: diffusely enlarged gland; diffusely hypoechoic parenchyma; markedly increased vascularity, so-called “thyroid inferno”.
719) Mastocytic Enterocolitis
Is a term describing the condition of chronic, intractable diarrhea in people with normal colon or duodenum biopsy results, but with an increased number of mast cells in the mucosa (the innermost layer of the colon). It as an isolated entity is a recently defined and possibly a rare etiology to chronic diarrhea . This case demonstrates that mastocytic enterocolitis can develop without systemic mastocytosis and without a preceding autoimmune condition.
720) Maternal Exposure During Pregnancy
Maternal exposure to volatile organic compounds, such as PERC, was found to influence the immune status of the newborn (Lehman 2002). In summary, the data indicate an increased risk of spontaneous abortion associated with occupational exposure, but data are inadequate regarding other outcomes of pregnancy.
721) Melas Syndrome
MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes) syndrome is a rare disorder that begins in childhood, usually between two and fifteen years of age, and mostly affects the nervous system and muscles. MELAS syndrome is caused by mutations in the genetic material (DNA) in the mitochondria. While most of our DNA is in the chromosomes in the cell nucleus, some of our DNA is in another important structure called the mitochondrion (plural: mitochondria). Most people with MELAS have a buildup of lactic acid in their bodies, a condition called lactic acidosis. Increased acidity in the blood can lead to vomiting, abdominal pain, extreme tiredness (fatigue), muscle weakness, and difficulty breathing.
Is an inflammation (swelling) of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. A bacterial or viral infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord usually causes the swelling. However, injuries, cancer, certain drugs, and other types of infections also can cause meningitis. Meningitis symptoms can develop within hours or days and may include: Confusion; Fever; Headache; Numbness in your face;; Sensitivity to light; Stiff neck so that you can’t lower your chin to your chest; Upset stomach or vomiting; Severe headache with nausea or vomiting.
723) Meningitis Aseptic
Is the inflammation of the meninges, a membrane covering the brain and spinal cord, in patients whose cerebral spinal fluid test result is negative with routine bacterial cultures. Aseptic meningitis is caused by viruses, mycobacteria, spirochetes, fungi, medications, and cancer malignancies. Aseptic meningitis is an illness characterized by serous inflammation of the linings of the brain (i.e., meninges), usually with an accompanying mononuclear pleocytosis. Clinical manifestations vary, with headache and fever predominating. Cause aseptic meningitis include the following: chickenpox; HIV; herpes simplex; mumps; measles; West Nile; rabies.
724) Meningitis Herpes
Herpes meningitis is a type of viral meningitis that results from infection with a herpes virus. The condition causes swelling of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord, which are called the meninges. Meningitis is the medical term for inflammation of the meninges. Symptoms appear within three to six days after being exposed to the virus. You can pass the virus to others for several weeks after getting the infection, even after you no longer feel sick so it is important to always wash your hands. It is very unusual for anyone to have meningitis more than once, but it is possible. Most people some develop immunity to the organism that has caused their disease.
725) Meningoencephalitis Herpes Simplex Neonatal
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a devastating disease that can be difficult to diagnose in its early stages. By definition, neonatal herpes simplex (HSV) disease presents in the first 4 weeks of life and is almost always acquired by perinatal exposure to HSV. Symptoms of HSV Infection in Newborns: The first symptom is usually a rash of small, fluid-filled blisters. The blisters can also appear inside the mouth and around the eyes. This close-up of a newborn’s mouth shows sores on and under the upper lip caused by herpes simplex virus.
726) Meningoencephalitis Herpetic
Is an infection of the brain and brain covering (meninges) caused by the herpes simplex virus. It is a medical emergency that requires treatment right away. Viral infections are the most common cause of meningitis, followed by bacterial infections and, rarely, fungal and parasitic infections. Because bacterial infections can be life-threatening, identifying the cause is essential.
727) Meningomyelitis Herpes
Meningoencephalitis can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoan or as secondary sequel of other inflammations like AIDS. The viral or aseptic meningoencephalitis is mainly caused by enteroviruses, varicella‐zoster viruses, herpes simplex viruses, or measles viruses. Most people who get mild viral meningitis usually recover completely in 7 to 10 days without treatment. Antiviral medicine may help people with meningitis caused by viruses such as herpesvirus and influenza.
728) Mesangioproliferative Glomerulonephritis
Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MesPGN) is a morphological pattern characterized by a numerical increase in mesangial cells and expansion of the extracellular matrix within the mesangium of the glomerulus. The signs and symptoms of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis: Swelling in body parts like your legs, ankles, or around your eyes (edema); Large amounts of protein in your urine (proteinuria); Loss of protein in your blood; High levels of fat lipids in your blood (high cholesterol); High blood pressure.
729) Mesenteric Artery Embolism
Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a life-threatening medical condition that occurs when a sudden decreased perfusion to the intestines which leads to bowel infarction, and acute superior mesenteric artery embolism (ASMAE) is the main cause of AMI.
730) Mesenteric Artery Thrombosis
The superior mesenteric artery provides oxygenated blood and nutrients to the intestines. These organs are part of the digestive system. The artery branches off of the aorta, which is the body’s largest blood vessel. Superior refers to the artery’s location above other arteries that supply the intestines. (MAT) is a condition involving occlusion of the arterial vascular supply of the intestinal system.
731) Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis
(MVT) describes acute, subacute, or chronic thrombosis of the superior or inferior mesenteric vein or branches. MVT may present with acute abdominal pain or may be an asymptomatic incidental finding on abdominal imaging. Symptoms may include any of the following: Abdominal pain, which may get worse after eating and over time; Bloating; Constipation; Bloody diarrhea; Fever; Septic shock; Lower gastrointestinal bleeding; Vomiting and nausea.
732) Metapneumovirus Infection
(hMPV) is a common respiratory virus that causes an upper respiratory infection (like a cold). It is a seasonal disease that usually occurs in the winter and early spring, similar to RSV and the flu. More severe illness, with wheezing, difficulty breathing, hoarseness, cough, pneumonia, and in adults, aggravation of asthma, also has been reported. In children younger than 1 year of age, the elderly and persons who have weak immune systems, hMPV can cause more serious respiratory illness.
733) Metastatic Cutaneous Crohn’s Disease
Defined as skin lesions present in areas noncontiguous with the gastrointestinal tract, is the rarest cutaneous manifestation of Crohn’s disease. MCD lesions vary in morphology and can arise anywhere on the skin. MCD presents equally in both sexes and across age groups. Skin Conditions Related to Crohn’s Disease: Red bumps; Sores; Skin tears; Acne; Skin tags; Tunnels; Canker sores; Red spots.
734) Metastatic Pulmonary Embolism
Pulmonary metastases are defined as secondary malignant tumors of the lung parenchyma or pleura. Originating from an entirely separate organ, metastatic disease to the lung is the second-most common pulmonary malignancy. The most common symptoms of lung metastases are: Coughing. Bringing up blood when coughing. Chest pain.
(Microvascular disease, small vessel disease (SVD) or microvascular dysfunction, is a disease of the microvessels, small blood vessels in the microcirculation. It can be contrasted to coronary heart disease, an angiopathy that affects the larger vessels. A disease of the capillaries (very small blood vessels), in which the capillary walls become so thick and weak that they bleed, leak protein, and slow the flow of blood. For example, diabetes predisposes to the development of microangiopathy in many areas, including the eye.Microangiopathy is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus. The small blood vessel changes affecting the retinal and renal vasculature are responsible for blindness and kidney failure. Microvascular pathology has also been assumed to play a role in diabetic neuropathy and in the so-called diabetic foot.
A microembolism is a small particle, often a blood clot, that becomes caught while traveling through the bloodstream and can cause blockage in a blood vessel. When many of these occur in in the blood vessels of the brain, they are known as cerebral microemboli. Other possible symptoms include: numbness or weakness in the face, arm, or leg, particularly on one side; general weakness; fatigue; dizziness or vertigo; loss of balance; difficulty walking; loss of vision in one or both eyes; severe headache.
737) Microscopic Polyangiitis
(MPA) is a condition that causes small blood vessels to be inflamed. It’s a rare type of vasculitis. The disease can damage the blood vessels and cause problems in organs around the body. MPA most often affects people in their 50s and 60s, but it can happen at any age.
738) Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
(MERS) is a viral respiratory infection caused by Middle East respiratory syndrome–related coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe. Typical symptoms include fever, cough, diarrhea, and shortness of breath. The disease is typically more severe in those with other health problems.
739) Migraine-Triggered Seizure
A migraine-aura triggered seizure is defined as a seizure that occurs due to a migraine with aura and is not observed in migraines without aura. Experts suggest that migraine aura-induced seizures occur due to electrical changes in the brain that accompany an aura. Migraine seizures usually include symptoms such as: weakness on one side of the body; difficulty speaking; involuntary movements; diminished consciousness. In migraine, a person can have nausea, vomiting, weakness, stiff neck, paleness, and yawning, which can occur starting hours or days before the pain portion of the migraine.” In seizures, symptoms such as a “rising” feeling in the stomach, perception of certain smells, feeling of numbness, or a sense of déjà vu.
740) Miliary Pneumonia
Is a term applied to multiple, discrete lesions resulting from the spread of the pathogen to the lungs via the bloodstream. The varying degrees of immunocompromise in miliary tuberculosis (TB), histoplasmosis, and coccidioidomycosis may manifest as granulomas with caseous necrosis to foci of necrosis. Signs and symptoms of miliary TB: a fever that goes on for several weeks and may be worse in the evening; chills; dry cough that may occasionally be bloody; fatigue; weakness; shortness of breath that increases with time; poor appetite; weight loss.
741) Miller Fisher Syndrome
(MFS) is a rare acquired nerve disease related to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Features include weakness of the eye muscles causing difficulty moving the eyes; impaired limb coordination and unsteadiness; and absent tendon reflexes. Both GBS and MFS are triggered by a viral infection, most commonly the flu or a stomach bug. Symptoms generally start appearing from one to four weeks after infection with the virus. No one is entirely sure why GBS and MFS develop in response to these common illnesses. Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is a rare, autoimmune nerve condition.
742) Mitochondrial Aspartate Aminotransferase Increased
Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase 2 also catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid. The enzyme plays a role in metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol and facilitates cellular uptake of long-chain free fatty acids.
743) Mixed Connective Tissue Disease
(MCTD) has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma, and polymyositis. Many people with this uncommon disease also have Sjogren’s syndrome. For this reason, MCTD is sometimes called an overlap disease. Symptoms may include: A butterfly-shaped rash on the cheeks and bridge of the nose; Sensitivity to sunlight; Mouth ulcers; Hair loss; Fluid around the heart and/or lungs; Kidney problems; Anemia or other blood cell problems; Problems with memory and concentration or other nervous system disorders.
744) Model For End Stage Liver Disease Score Abnormal
Models that are used commonly in the care of patients with cirrhosis are the Child-Turcotte-Pugh score, the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, and the MELD-Sodium (MELD-Na) score. The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was recently introduced to evaluate hepatic function reserve in cirrhotic patients. It has the advantage of using three objective and easily measured parameters: creatinine levels, international normalized ratio (INR) and total bilirubin.
745) Model For End Stage Liver Disease Score Increased
The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was recently introduced to evaluate hepatic function reserve in cirrhotic patients. It has the advantage of using three objective and easily measured parameters: creatinine levels, international normalized ratio (INR) and total bilirubin.
746) Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency
Is a rare condition characterized by brain dysfunction (encephalopathy) that worsens over time. Babies with this condition appear normal at birth, but within a week they have difficulty feeding and develop seizures that do not improve with treatment (intractable seizures). Symptoms were tachycardia, tachypnea, headache, nausea, vomiting, and coma. Laboratory tests showed high levels of sulfite and xanthine and low levels of sulfate and uric acid in the blood and urine.
Is a reduction in blood monocyte count to < 500/mcL (< 0.5 × 10 9/L). Risk of certain infections is increased. It is diagnosed by complete blood count with differential. Treatment with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be needed. Monocytopenia is a form of leukocytopenia associated with a deficiency of monocytes. The major causes of this condition include use of myelotoxic drugs, acute infectious stress, aplastic anemia, hairy cell leukemia and myeloid leukemia. Monocytopenia usually is associated with abnormalities of other types of white blood cells. This can cause health problems, such as inflammation, severe infections, bleeding, or symptoms of anemia (including fatigue, dizziness, and pale skin).
Mononeuritis multiplex is actually a group of symptoms rather than its own disease. Its symptoms include numbness, tingling, abnormal sensation, lack of sensation, difficulty to control movement, or an inability to move a part of the body. Signs and symptoms of mononeuritis multiplex; Numbness; Tingling; Abnormal sensation; Burning pain – Dysesthesia; Difficulty moving a body part – Paralysis; Lack of controlled movement of a body part.
749) Mononeuropathy Multiplex
Also known as mononeuropathy multiplex or multifocal neuropathy, is a type of peripheral neuropathy. It happens when there is damage to two or more different nerve areas. Mononeuritis multiplex is actually a group of symptoms rather than its own disease. Mononeuritis multiplex, chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy and motor neuropathy are less common. The neuropathy may precede the onset of the disease and be the initial diagnostic clue. It is presumed to be related to autoimmune-mediated vascular damage is. Anyone can have mononeuritis multiplex, but people with diabetes mellitis or connective tissue diseases are more likely to get it. Another common cause includes a lack of oxygen caused by decreased blood flow. A common cause is from vasculitis.
Is a rare skin condition that will usually only affect the appearance of the skin and will go away without treatment. However, in more severe cases, morphea can cause mobility issues or deformities. In children, morphea can cause eye damage and problems with limb growth and movement. Morphea is an autoimmune disease that causes sclerosis, or scarlike, changes to the skin. Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system, which normally protects us from bacteria, viruses, and fungi, mistakenly attacks a person’s own body.
751) Morvan Syndrome
Morvan’s ‘fibrillary chorea’ or Morvan’s syndrome is characterized by neuromyotonia (NMT), pain, hyperhydrosis, weight loss, severe insomnia and hallucinations. We describe a man aged 76 years with NMT, dysautonomia, cardiac arrhythmia, lack of slow-wave sleep and abnormal rapid eye movement sleep.
752) Mouth Swelling
Infections of the tissues of and around the mouth itself can result in swelling. Bacterial infection: A bacterial infection can cause an abscess, which is a painful, infected lump inside the mouth. Cold sores: A viral infection or “cold sore” can cause the roof of the mouth to swell at the same time the sore appears. Allergies are the primary cause of swollen lips. When your body comes in contact with an allergen such as insect bites, milk, peanuts, shellfish, soy or wheat, fluid can accumulate underneath the skin layers and cause the lips to swell.
753) Moyamoya Disease
Is a rare blood vessel (vascular) disorder in which the carotid artery in the skull becomes blocked or narrowed, reducing blood flow to your brain. Tiny blood vessels then develop at the base of the brain in an attempt to supply the brain with blood. Moyamoya Disease Symptoms: Recurring transient ischemic attacks (TIAs or “mini-strokes”); Epilepsy; Stroke: Ischemic stroke (due to blockage) or hemorrhagic stroke (bleeding); Hemiparesis: weakness or paralysis on one side of the body; Progressive difficulty in thinking and remembering due to repeated strokes and bleeding.
754) Multifocal Motor Neuropathy
(MMN) is a disease that affects your body’s motor nerves. Those are the nerves that control your muscles. The condition makes it hard for them to send the electrical signals that move your body, which makes your hands and arms feel weak. They’ll also twitch and cramp. Signs and symptoms of multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) may include weakness; cramping; involuntary contractions or twitching; wrist drop or foot drop; and wasting (atrophy) of affected muscles. Atrophy occurs late in the course of the condition.
755) Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome
(MODS) can be defined as the development of potentially reversible physiologic derangement involving two or more organ systems not involved in the disorder that resulted in ICU admission, and arising in the wake of a potentially life-threatening physiologic insult. Signs include nausea, seizures, reduced urine production, swelling in the lower extremities, and chest pain. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is defined as the progressive physiological dysfunction of two or more organ systems where homeostasis cannot be maintained without intervention. It is initiated by illness, injury or infection and most commonly affects the heart, lungs, liver and kidneys.
756) Multiple Sclerosis
(MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). Common early signs of multiple sclerosis (MS) include: vision problems; tingling and numbness; pains and spasms; weakness or fatigue; balance problems or dizziness; bladder issues; sexual dysfunction; cognitive problems. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a condition that can affect the brain and spinal cord, causing a wide range of potential symptoms, including problems with vision, arm or leg movement, sensation or balance. It’s a lifelong condition that can sometimes cause serious disability, although it can occasionally be mild.
757) Multiple Sclerosis Relapse
Relapsing-remitting MS is marked by relapses that last at least 24 hours. During a relapse, symptoms get worse. A relapse will be followed by a remission. During a remission, symptoms partly or completely go away. Sometimes the symptoms of a relapse go away completely but, in other cases, they may not fully disappear. Both the frequency and severity of relapses are very variable and unpredictable.
758) Multiple Sclerosis Relapse Prophylaxis
Perioperative prophylaxis in patients with MS undergoing surgery can prevent relapse. It is of utmost importance that the surgical community realizes that prophylactic treatment is available and should be utilized during elective and emergent surgical situations. The symptoms of relapsing-remitting MS: Trouble seeing; Sensitivity to heat; Numbness, especially in the feet; Weakness; Fatigue; Difficulty thinking clearly; Depression; Needing to urinate urgently.
759) Multiple Subpial Transection
Is a surgical treatment modality for epilepsy used in scenarios wherein epileptogenic brain regions cannot be removed safely.
760) Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome In Children
(MIS-C) is a condition where different body parts can become inflamed, including the heart, lungs, kidneys, brain, skin, eyes, or gastrointestinal organs.
761) Muscular Sarcoidosis
Is a rare entity and is usually asymptomatic. It is symptomatic in only 1% of cases. It typically appears as a complication of systemic sarcoidosis. The histological pattern of sarcoid myopathy is as a noncaseating granuloma in the perimysial connective tissue. Symptoms of musculoskeletal sarcoidosis: joint pain; rigid or stiff joints; swelling; erythema nodosum; muscle weakness (myopathy); muscle pain.
762) Myasthenia Gravis
(MG) is a chronic autoimmune disorder in which antibodies destroy the communication between nerves and muscle, resulting in weakness of the skeletal muscles. Myasthenia gravis affects the voluntary muscles of the body, especially those that control the eyes, mouth, throat and limbs.
Myasthenia gravis is caused by an abnormal immune reaction (antibody-mediated autoimmune response) in which the body’s immune defenses (i.e., antibodies) inappropriately attack certain proteins in muscles that receive nerve impulses. Myasthenia gravis can range from mild to severe. In some cases, symptoms are so minimal that no treatment is necessary. Even in moderately severe cases, with treatment, most people can continue to work and live independently.
763) Myasthenia Gravis Crisis
Is a complication of myasthenia gravis characterized by worsening of muscle weakness, resulting in respiratory failure that requires intubation and mechanical ventilation. Advances in critical care have improved the mortality rate associated with myasthenic crisis. Muscle weakness and fatigue may vary rapidly in intensity over days or even hours and worsen as muscles are used (early fatigue) Facial muscle involvement causing a mask-like appearance; a smile may appear more like a snarl. Trouble swallowing or pronouncing words. Weakness of the neck or limbs.
764) Myasthenia Gravis Neonatal
Neonatal myasthenia gravis (MG) is a temporary form of MG. Babies born to mothers with MG are susceptible to it. It is an antibody-mediated disorder caused by the transplacental transmission of maternal antibodies. Approximately three-quarter of the mothers with myasthenia gravis posses anti-acetylcholine receptor (anti-AChR) antibodies. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune condition of the neuromuscular system that’s characterized by impaired communication between the nerves and muscles. This condition leads to weakness in the skeletal muscles.
765) Myasthenic Syndrome
Is a group of conditions characterized by muscle weakness (myasthenia) that worsens with physical exertion. The muscle weakness typically begins in early childhood but can also appear in adolescence or adulthood. The most common symptoms of CMS include: Muscle weakness that is brought on by activity or exercise; Eyelid drooping which can come and go; Facial and throat muscle weakness; Delay of motor development. Myasthenic crisis is a life-threatening complication of myasthenia gravis. It’s when the muscles that you use to breathe get so weak that you can’t get air in and out of your lungs. It isn’t the same as a myasthenia gravis flare, an all-over muscle weakness that may cause double vision or a wobbly walk.
Is inflammation of the spinal cord which can disrupt the normal responses from the brain to the rest of the body, and from the rest of the body to the brain. Inflammation in the spinal cord, can cause the myelin and axon to be damaged resulting in symptoms such as paralysis and sensory loss. Four classic symptoms of transverse myelitis: weakness in the arms/legs; sensory symptoms such as numbness or tingling; pain and discomfort; bladder dysfunction and/or bowel motility problems.
767) Myelitis Transverse
Is an inflammation of both sides of one section of the spinal cord. This neurological disorder often damages the insulating material covering nerve cell fibers (myelin). Transverse myelitis interrupts the messages that the spinal cord nerves send throughout the body. Four classic symptoms of transverse myelitis: weakness in the arms/legs; sensory symptoms such as numbness or tingling; pain and discomfort; bladder dysfunction and/or bowel motility problems.
768) Myocardial Infarction
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction) A heart attack (medically known as a myocardial infarction) is a deadly medical emergency where your heart muscle begins to die because it isn’t getting enough blood flow. This is usually caused by a blockage in the arteries that supply blood to your heart. Myocardial infarction (MI) usually results from an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand, which is most often caused by plaque rupture with thrombus formation in an epicardial coronary artery, resulting in an acute reduction of blood supply to a portion of the myocardium. The symptoms of heart attack; Chest pain or discomfort; Feeling weak, light-headed, or faint; Pain or discomfort in the jaw, neck, or back; Pain or discomfort in one or both arms or shoulders; Shortness of breath.
Myocarditis is rare, but when it occurs, it is most commonly caused by an infection in the body. Infections from viruses (most common, including those that cause the common cold, influenza or COVID-19), bacteria, fungus or parasites can lead to myocardial inflammation. Some things that can cause myocarditis include:Coxsackie B viruses; Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); Cytomegalovirus (CMV); Hepatitis C; Herpes; HIV; Parvovirus; Chlamydia (a common sexually transmitted disease).
770) Myoclonic Epilepsy
Causes the muscles in the body to contract. This type of seizure causes quick jerking movements. Myoclonic seizures often happen in everyday life. This includes hiccups and a sudden jerk while falling asleep. They are characterized by a type of seizure that involves sudden, unintended muscle motions that are known as myoclonic jerks. This type of seizure is usually caused by genetic factors. The seizures usually begin in childhood, with the most common form known as juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Symptoms: quick jerking, often after waking up; rhythmic movements; sensation of an electric shock; unusual clumsiness.
771) Myoclonic Epilepsy And Ragged-Red Fibres
(MERRF) is a multisystem mitochondrial syndrome characterized by progressive myoclonus and seizures. Other features associated with MERRF include cerebellar ataxia, myopathy, cardiac arrhythmia, sensorineural hearing loss, optic atrophy, and dementia. People with mutations in the MT-TL1, MT-TH, or MT-TS1 gene typically have signs and symptoms of other mitochondrial disorders as well as those of MERRF. The MT-TK, MT-TL1, MT-TH, and MT-TS1 genes are contained in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). This appearance is due to the accumulation of abnormal mitochondria below the plasma membrane of the muscle fiber. These may extend throughout the muscle fiber as the disease severity increases. The mitochondrial aggregates cause the contour of the muscle fiber to become irregular, causing the “ragged” appearance.
Is an involuntary, spontaneous, localized quivering of a few muscles, or bundles within a muscle, but which are insufficient to move a joint. One type is superior oblique myokymia. Myokymia of the lid is a unilateral and uncontrollable lid twitch or tic that is not caused by disease or pathology. Myokymia is thought to be brought on by stress and other similar issues and resolves on its own with time. It usually involves the lower eyelid and is self-limiting to a few days or a week.
Means inflammation of the muscles that you use to move your body. An injury, infection, or autoimmune disease can cause it. Two specific kinds are polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Polymyositis causes muscle weakness, usually in the muscles closest to the trunk of your body. Early symptoms in patients with myositis include: Difficulty standing up from a seated position. Difficulty climbing stairs. Difficulty lifting the arms. Fatigue after standing or walking a long time. Trouble swallowing or breathing. Muscle pain that does not subside within a few weeks.
Is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by overwhelming daytime drowsiness and sudden attacks of sleep. People with narcolepsy often find it difficult to stay awake for long periods of time, regardless of the circumstances. There are 5 main symptoms of narcolepsy, referred to by the acronym CHESS (Cataplexy, Hallucinations, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Sleep paralysis, Sleep disruption). While all patients with narcolepsy experience excessive daytime sleepiness, they may not experience all 5 symptoms.
775) Nasal Herpes
What is called nasal? The space inside the nose. The nasal cavity lies above the bone that forms the roof of the mouth and curves down at the back to join the throat. It is divided into two sections called nasal passages. Air moves through these passages during breathing. The HSV-1 virus can cause cold sores underneath the nose.
776) Nasal Obstruction
Is not a disease but rather a symptom of an underlying disorder that causes the nasal passages to be blocked or obstructed. Nasal congestion or stuffiness. Trouble breathing through your nose. Trouble sleeping. Unable to breathe well during exercise or exertion. If your nasal congestion is from a cold or flu, it will likely last as long your cold or flu (anywhere from five to 10 days) or even longer. If your nasal congestion is the result of allergies, it may last longer, depending on your exposure to that particular allergen.
777) Necrotising Herpetic Retinopathy
The retinal lesions of ARN are white-yellow patches of necrotizing retinitis that usually first appear in the far or midperiphery. With time, these patches become larger, increase in number, and coalesce. Without antiviral therapy, full-thickness necrosis of the entire peripheral retina will result. The retinal lesions of ARN are white-yellow patches of necrotizing retinitis that usually first appear in the far or midperiphery. With time, these patches become larger, increase in number, and coalesce. Without antiviral therapy, full-thickness necrosis of the entire peripheral retina will result.
778) Neonatal Crohn’s Disease
Common symptoms of pediatric Crohn’s disease are cramping, abdominal pain, and chronic episodes of watery diarrhea; blood may at times be seen in the diarrhea. Sometimes, affected individuals will have an urgent need to go to the bathroom and move their bowels.
779) Neonatal Epileptic Seizure
A seizure is caused by sudden, abnormal and excessive electrical activity in the brain. By definition, neonatal seizures occur during the neonatal period — for a full-term infant, the first 28 days of life. Most occur in the first one to two days to the first week of a baby’s life. Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy is the most common cause of neonatal seizures, with onset typically within the first 24-48 hours of life.
780) Neonatal Lupus Erythematosus
(NLE) refers to a clinical spectrum of cutaneous, cardiac, and systemic abnormalities observed in newborn infants whose mothers have autoantibodies against Ro/SSA and La/SSB. The condition is rare and usually benign and self-limited but sometimes may be associated with serious sequelae. The most common symptom associated with neonatal lupus is a rash that consists of reddish, ring-like skin lesions and resembles the rash associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.
781) Neonatal Mucocutaneous Herpes Simplex
(HSV-1 and HSV-2) are human pathogens that infect mucocutaneous surfaces, and can disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) and visceral organs. More common manifestations of mucocutaneous HSV infection include gingivostomatitis, pharyngitis, keratitis, and genital ulcers. following: Mucocutaneous vesicles. Sepsis-like illness (fever or hypothermia, irritability, lethargy, respiratory distress, apnea, abdominal distension, hepatomegaly, ascites)
782) Neonatal Pneumonia
Is lung infection in a neonate. Onset may be within hours of birth and part of a generalized sepsis syndrome or after 7 days and confined to the lungs. Signs may be limited to respiratory distress or progress to shock and death. Diagnosis is by clinical and laboratory evaluation for sepsis. Clinical signs are unspecific and present as respiratory distress of various degree, suspicious appearing tracheal aspirates, cough, apnea, high or low temperature, poor feeding, abdominal distension, and lethargy. Tachypnea is a predominant clinical sign, present in 60-89 % of cases.
783) Neonatal Seizure
Are a commonly encountered neurologic condition in neonates. They are defined as the occurrence of sudden, paroxysmal, abnormal alteration of electrographic activity at any point from birth to the end of the neonatal period. During this period, the neonatal brain is developmentally immature.
Is a condition in which the nephrons, the functional units of the kidneys, become inflamed. This inflammation, which is also known as glomerulonephritis, can adversely affect kidney function. The symptoms of acute nephritis: pain in the pelvis, pain or a burning sensation while urinating, a frequent need to urinate, cloudy urine, blood or pus in the urine, pain in the kidney area or abdomen, swelling of the body, commonly in the face, legs, and feet, vomiting.
785) Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis
Is a rare disease that occurs mainly in people with advanced kidney failure with or without dialysis. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis may resemble skin diseases, such as scleroderma and scleromyxedema, with thickening and darkening developing on large areas of the skin. Symptoms: Swelling and tightening of the skin. Reddened or darkened patches on the skin. Thickening and hardening of the skin, typically on the arms and legs and sometimes on the body, but almost never on the face or head. Skin that may feel “woody” and develop an orange-peel appearance.
786) Neuralgic Amyotrophy
Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy is a disorder characterized by episodes of severe pain and muscle wasting (amyotrophy) in one or both shoulders and arms. Neuralgic pain is felt along the path of one or more nerves and often has no obvious physical cause. In most cases, pain may persist for a few hours to a few weeks and is followed by wasting and weakness of the muscles (amyotrophy) in the affected areas.
Is inflammation of a nerve or the general inflammation of the peripheral nervous system. Inflammation, and frequently concomitant demyelination, cause impaired transmission of neural signals and leads to aberrant nerve function. Symptoms of neuritis will vary depending on which nerves are affected but typically include weakness, numbness, pain, tingling sensations, loss of reflexes, muscle atrophy, or sensory disturbances (e.g., vision, balance, hearing). These symptoms can be either temporary or permanent.
788) Neuritis Cranial
Neuropathy is a disorder that causes nerve damage and affects your ability to feel and move. Exactly how your body and your movement are affected depends on where in the body the damaged nerves are located. When nerves in the brain or brainstem are affected, it is called cranial neuropathy. The symptoms of cranial neuropathies: Pain. A tingling sensation. Numbness. Skin that feels sensitive to the touch. Weak or paralyzed muscles.
789) Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder
NMO is also known as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder or Devic’s disease. It occurs when your body’s immune system reacts against its own cells in the central nervous system, mainly in the optic nerves and spinal cord, but sometimes in the brain. The symptoms of neuromyelitis optica: Pain in the eyes. Loss of vision. Weakness or numbness in the arms and legs. Paralysis of the arms and legs. Difficulty controlling the bladder or bowels. Uncontrollable vomiting and hiccups.
Is a rare condition of spontaneous and continuous muscle fibre activity of peripheral nerve origin. It represents the more severe phenotype of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, and when acquired is often associated with antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels. Symptoms: continuous contracting or twitching of muscles, muscle stiffness and cramping that worsens over time, increased or excessive sweating, muscle pain, delayed reflexes, gradual muscle loss, difficulty coordinating movements and walking, weight loss.
791) Neuronal Neuropathy
Neuropathy results when nerve cells, called neurons, are damaged or destroyed. This disrupts the way the neurons communicate with each other and with the brain. The symptoms of neuropathy: Tingling (“pins and needles”) or numbness, especially in the hands and feet. Sharp, burning, throbbing, stabbing or electric-like pain. Changes in sensation. Falling, loss of coordination.
792) Neuropathy Peripheral
A result of damage to the nerves located outside of the brain and spinal cord (peripheral nerves), often causes weakness, numbness and pain, usually in the hands and feet. It can also affect other areas and body functions including digestion, urination and circulation. The main symptoms of peripheral neuropathy can include: numbness and tingling in the feet or hands, burning, stabbing or shooting pain in affected areas, loss of balance and co-ordination, muscle weakness, especially in the feet.
793) Neuropathy, Ataxia, Retinitis Pigmentosa Syndrome
Neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa, also known as NARP syndrome, is a rare disease with mitochondrial inheritance that causes a variety of signs and symptoms chiefly affecting the nervous system. Beginning in childhood or early adulthood, most people with NARP experience numbness, tingling, or pain in the arms and legs (sensory neuropathy); muscle weakness; and problems with balance and coordination (ataxia).
794) Neuropsychiatric Lupus
Which is often referred to as central nervous system (CNS) lupus, can cause lupus patients to be afflicted with a variety of neuropsychiatric issues ranging from headaches and depression to seizures and a number of demyelinating conditions. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in lupus patients, and their recognition is important. There are five psychiatric symptoms according to the ACR classification: cognitive dysfunction, mood disorder, anxiety disorders, psychosis, and acute confusional state.
Is a form of sarcoidosis. It is a long-term (chronic) disease of the central nervous system, which encompasses the brain, spinal cord and optic nerve, and is characterized by inflammation within one or more of those areas. If the condition is affecting the brain or cranial nerves, symptoms may include: Confusion, disorientation. Hearing loss. Dementia.Delirium. Dizziness, vertigo, or abnormal sensations of movement. Vision problems, such as double vision. Facial palsy, which is characterized by weakness or drooping of the facial muscles.
Occurs when you have too few neutrophils, a type of white blood cells. While all white blood cells help your body fight infections, neutrophils are important for fighting certain infections, especially those caused by bacteria. You probably won’t know that you have neutropenia. Signs and symptoms of neutropenia: A fever, which is a temperature of 100.5°F (38°C) or higher. Chills or sweating. Sore throat, sores in the mouth, or a toothache. Abdominal pain. Pain near the anus. Pain or burning when urinating, or urinating often. Diarrhea or sores around the anus. A cough or shortness of breath.
797) Neutropenia Neonatal
Alloimmune neonatal neutropenia occurs due to maternal sensitization to a paternal antigen present on the neutrophils of her fetus, and produces specific antibodies that are transported across the placenta and cause neutropenia in fetus.
798) Neutropenic Colitis
Is a severe condition usually affecting immunocompromised patients. Its exact pathogenesis is not completely understood. The main elements in disease onset appear to be intestinal mucosal injury together with neutropenia and the weakened immune system of the afflicted patients. Symptoms include the following: Right-lower-quadrant abdominal pain, which may be cramping and intermittent or a continuous dull ache. Fever. Watery or bloody diarrhea, which occurs in about 25-45% of patients. Nausea. Vomiting. Abdominal distention.
799) Neutropenic Infection
Neutropenia is a condition where your blood has low amounts of white blood cells called neutrophils. These cells are responsible for fighting infections. When your neutrophil count is extremely low, you have a high risk of getting an infection that your body can’t fight. Infections, including hepatitis, tuberculosis, sepsis, or Lyme disease.
800) Neutropenic Sepsis
Is a whole-body reaction to an infection. It’s a serious condition that can be life-threatening. It can happen when you have a low level of neutrophils and an infection at the same time. You may also hear it called febrile neutropenia. Signs and symptoms of neutropenic sepsis: reports of feeling generally unwell, flu-like symptoms, fever or low temperature, shivering, agitation, changes in behaviour, skin rash, pale, blotchy skin.
801) Nodular Rash
Nodular prurigo is a skin condition characterised by very itchy firm lumps. It is the most severe form of prurigo. It is not known why these lumps appear. It is also called ‘prurigo nodularis’. Nodular prurigo is very difficult to treat effectively.Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease where an extremely itchy, symmetrically distributed rash appears most commonly on the arms, legs, the upper back and/or the abdomen. The itch associated with PN is so severe that it often interferes with sleep and psychological wellbeing.
802) Nodular Vasculitis
(NV) is an uncommon form of panniculitis characterized by erythematous nodules or plaques located preferentially on the calves, which may ulcerate and drain. It has been regarded as a delayed hypersensitivity response to an antigenic stimulus, being originally associated with tuberculosis. It is a skin condition characterized by crops of small, tender, erythematous nodules on the legs, mostly on the calves and shins. Miroscopically there are epithelioid granulomas and vasculitis in the subcutaneous tissue, making it a form of panicullitis. Most of these cases are now thought to be manifestation of tuberculosis and indeed they respond well to anti-tuberculous treatment.
803) Noninfectious Myelitis
There are four classic symptoms of transverse myelitis: weakness in the arms/legs, sensory symptoms such as numbness or tingling, pain and discomfort,bladder dysfunction and/or bowel motility problems. There are four classic symptoms of transverse myelitis: weakness in the arms/legs, sensory symptoms such as numbness or tingling, pain and discomfort, bladder dysfunction and/or bowel motility problems.
804) Noninfective Encephalitis
Here are many causes, includingenteroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), West Nile and tick-borne viruses lead to viral encephalitis. the symptoms of autoimmune encephalitis: Impaired memory and understanding. Unusual and involuntary movements. Involuntary movements of the face (facial dyskinesia). Difficulty with balance, speech or vision. Insomnia. Weakness or numbness. Seizures. Severe anxiety or panic attacks.
805) Noninfective Encephalomyelitis
Bacterial infections and noninfectious inflammatory conditions also can cause encephalitis. In encephalitis, the brain itself is swollen or inflamed. Encephalopathy, on the other hand, refers to the mental state that can happen because of several types of health problems. But encephalitis can cause encephalopathy. It is most often due to a virus, such as: herpes simplex viruses, which cause cold sores (this is the most common cause of encephalitis) the varicella zoster virus, which causes chickenpox and shingles. measles, mumps and rubella viruses.
806) Noninfective Oophoritis
Autoimmune oophoritis is a rare cause of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). It happens when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the ovaries causing inflammation, atrophy and fibrosis. These changes stop the ovaries from working normally.
807) Obstetrical Pulmonary Embolism
When a clot breaks free and travels to the lungs, it becomes a medical emergency known as pulmonary embolism (PE). PE is rare, affecting approximately 1 in 7,000 pregnancies, according to Williams Obstetrics 25th edition. However, PE accounts for approximately 11% of maternal deaths.
808) Occupational Exposure To Communicable Disease
Mechanisms of occupational exposures include percutaneous injuries such as needlesticks, mucous membrane or non-intact skin contact via splashes or sprays, and inhalation of aerosols. HCP can also be exposed to infectious diseases in the community and risk transmitting them to others at work.
809) Occupational Exposure To Sars-Cov-2
Occupational exposure to severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and risk of infection among healthcare personnel.
810) Ocular Hyperaemia
Conjunctival hyperaemia is one of the most common findings in ophthalmologic practice. It is routinely described as a symptom of many ocular diseases such as conjunctivitis, uveitis, elevated intraocular pressure due to glaucoma, and ophthalmic side effects. It is one of the most common contributors of ocular complaints that prompts visits to medical centers. The rapid onset of pain is often accompanied by significant conjunctival injection, tearing, photophobia, blepharospasm, and decreased vision. Discharge, so often associated with conjunctivitis, is not usually present other than in some cases of purulent bacterial keratitis.
811) Ocular Myasthenia
Gravis only affects the muscles that move the eyes and eyelids. The symptoms of ocular myasthenia gravis include double vision (seeing two images instead of one), trouble focusing, and drooping eyelids. On the other hand, generalized myasthenia gravis affects muscles throughout the body. But for most people, the weakness spreads to other parts of the body over a few weeks, months or years. If you’ve had symptoms affecting your eyes for 2 years or more, it’s unusual for other parts of your body to be affected later on.
812) Ocular Pemphigoid
(OCP) is a form of mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) that features chronic, relapsing-remitting bilateral conjunctivitis. Ultimately, patients affected by this autoimmune disease will experience conjunctival cicatrization or scarring. Pemphigoid is a chronic scarring disease of the conjunctiva. It may be caused by drugs or eye drops but in most patients it is caused by too much activity of the immune system damaging the tissue under the conjunctiva.
813) Ocular Sarcoidosis
Sarcoidosis is one of the leading causes of inflammatory eye disease. Ocular sarcoidosis can involve any part of the eye and its adnexal tissues, and may cause uveitis, episcleritis/scleritis, eyelid abnormalities, conjunctival granuloma, optic neuropathy, lacrimal gland enlargement and orbital inflammation. Untreated pulmonary sarcoidosis can lead to permanent scarring in your lungs (pulmonary fibrosis), making it difficult to breathe and sometimes causing pulmonary hypertension. Eyes. Inflammation can affect almost any part of your eye and may cause damage to the retina, which can eventually cause blindness.
814) Ocular Vasculitis
Retinal vasculitis is characterized by inflammation of the vessels of the retina. Retinal vasculitis can occur in association with an underlying infectious or systemic disease, as part of an ocular disease, or it can be idiopathic.The most common symptoms include blurred or decreased vision, floaters, and scotomata, although the disease may be asymptomatic. Causes of poor outcome of retinal vasculitis are multifactorial and prediction of visual acuity is difficult as the course of the disease may vary.
815) Oculofacial Paralysis
Congenital oculofacial paralysis, and infantile nuclear aplasia are designations which refer to a rare clinical entity consisting of paralysis or paresis of both external rectus muscles and the muscles of the face. Up to the present time less than 100 cases have been recorded in the literature.
Is fluid retention. It used to be called dropsy. Oedema can be most easily seen around the ankles after you’ve been standing (peripheral oedema). After lying down for a while, your eyes may look puffy and swollen. In severe cases, oedema can also collect in your lungs and make you short of breath. It is caused by excess fluid becoming trapped in the body’s tissues, and this is often caused by fluid leaking from the bloodstream. Therefore, many of the causes of oedema have to do with things that affect the patient’s circulation. Factors that can lead to oedema include: Eating a lot of salt.
817) Oedema Due To Hepatic Disease
Patients with advanced cirrhosis show an abnormal regulation of extracellular fluid volume, resulting in the accumulation of fluid as ascites or edema. As portal hypertension develops, splanchnic arterial vasodilation also does due mainly to the production of nitric oxide (NO).
818) Oedema Mouth
Episodes of angio-oedema cause swelling of deeper skin tissues, most commonly around the eyes and mouth. Sometimes the tongue and throat are affected which may affect breathing. Other parts of the body such as hands, feet and genital areas may be affected less commonly.
819) Oesophageal Achalasia
Esophageal achalasia, often referred to simply as achalasia, is a failure of smooth muscle fibers to relax, which can cause the lower esophageal sphincter to remain closed. Without a modifier, “achalasia” usually refers to achalasia of the esophagus.
820) Ophthalmic Artery Thrombosis
(OA) is an artery of the head. It is the first branch of the internal carotid artery distal to the cavernous sinus. Branches of the ophthalmic artery supply all the structures in the orbit around the eye, as well as some structures in the nose, face, and meninges. It is usually associated with sudden painless loss of vision in one eye. The area of the retina affected by the blocked vessels determines the area and extent of visual loss. The main artery supplying blood to the eye is the ophthalmic artery; when it is blocked, it produces the most damage.
821) Ophthalmic Herpes Simplex
Herpes simplex eye infections are a potentially serious type of eye infection. They’re caused by a virus called herpes simplex – usually the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which also causes cold sores. The problem may be caused by herpes simplex keratitis if your doctor sees these symptoms: Pain in and around only one eye. Redness of the eye. Decreased vision. Feeling of dirt or “grit” in the eye. Overflowing tears. Pain when looking at bright light. Swelling or cloudiness of the cornea.
822) Ophthalmic Herpes Zoster
(HZO), also known as ophthalmic zoster, is shingles involving the eye or the surrounding area. Common signs include a rash of the forehead with swelling of the eyelid. There may also be eye pain and redness, inflammation of the conjunctiva, cornea or uvea, and sensitivity to light. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when reactivation of the latent virus in the trigeminal ganglia involves the ophthalmic division of the nerve. The virus damages the eye and surrounding structures by secondary perineural and intraneural inflammation of sensory nerves.
823) Ophthalmic Vein Thrombosis
Superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis (SOVT) is a rare vision and life-threatening complication with many underlying etiologies such as infectious and inflammatory orbital disease, trauma, neoplasm, and a hypercoagulable state. Presenting signs of SOVT are caused by venous congestion and may include painful proptosis, eyelid swelling, ptosis, impairment in motility, and vision loss.
824) Optic Neuritis
Occurs when swelling (inflammation) damages the optic nerve — a bundle of nerve fibers that transmits visual information from your eye to your brain. Common symptoms of optic neuritis include pain with eye movement and temporary vision loss in one eye. The symptoms of optic neuritis will usually go away on their own without medical treatment. However, continuing to take regular MS disease-modulating medication will help. Doctors may also recommend additional treatments in some cases to help speed up recovery.
825) Optic Neuropathy
Is a catch-all term that refers to damage inflicted on the optic nerve in your eye. This is the nerve in the back of the eyeball that transfers visual information from your eye to the brain, allowing you to see. This condition is one that gets worse over time, when not treated. Optic Neuropathy Symptoms: Seeing flashing or flickering lights when moving the eyes. Colors may appear less bold or vivid than they normally do. You may lose vision in one eye, either fully or partially. Optic neuropathy patients often experience pain in the face and eye socket.
826) Optic Perineuritis
(OPN) is a rare form of orbital inflammatory disease targeting the optic nerve sheath. OPN usually presents with minor visual impairment, optic disc edema, and visual field abnormalities that include arcuate defects and peripheral island defects. OPN are ocular pain, decreased vision, and visual field defects and orbital MRI with abnormal enhancement around the optic nerve sheath.
827) Oral Herpes
Is an infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The virus causes painful sores on your lips, gums, tongue, roof of your mouth, and inside your cheeks. It also can cause symptoms such as fever and muscle aches. In oral herpes, most blisters appear on the lips or mouth. They can also form elsewhere on the face, especially around the chin and below the nose, or on the tongue. At first, the sores look similar to small bumps or pimples before developing into pus-filled blisters. These may be red, yellow or white.
828) Oral Lichen Planus
(LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) inflammatory condition that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, swollen tissues; or open sores. These lesions may cause burning, pain or other discomfort. Oral lichen planus is a chronic condition. There is no cure, so the treatment focuses on helping severe lesions heal and reducing pain or other discomfort. One of these forms may be recommended: Topical. Mouthwash, ointment or gel is applied directly to the mucous membrane — the preferred method. Oral. Injection.
829) Oropharyngeal Oedema
Abnormal accumulation of fluid leading to swelling of the pharynx. Oedema is swelling caused by the accumulation of fluid in a part of the body. It is often accompanied by inflammation. Oedema usually affects the feet, ankles and legs, although it can occur anywhere in the body. Oedema can be dangerous if untreated, particularly if you get fluid retention in the lungs. However, providing the underlying condition is recognised and treated, the outlook is generally very good. Most oedema is due to standing too long on a hot day, especially if you are overweight.
830) Oropharyngeal Spasm
People with cricopharyngeal spasm describe feeling as though a large object is stuck in their throat. This can be accompanied by choking or tightening sensations. Cricopharyngeal spasm pain is usually worse between meals. Symptoms tend to disappear while you’re eating or drinking.
831) Oropharyngeal Swelling
Oropharyngeal is the part of the throat at the back of the mouth behind the oral cavity. It includes the back third of the tongue, the soft palate, the side and back walls of the throat, and the tonsils. Infections of the tissues of and around the mouth itself can result in swelling. Bacterial infection: A bacterial infection can cause an abscess, which is a painful, infected lump inside the mouth. Cold sores: A viral infection or “cold sore” can cause the roof of the mouth to swell at the same time the sore appears.
832) Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome
(ODS) is brain cell dysfunction. It is caused by the destruction of the layer (myelin sheath) covering nerve cells in the middle of the brainstem (pons). Symptoms of osmotic demyelination (eg, dysarthria, dysphagia, seizures, altered mental status, quadriparesis, hypotension) typically begin 1-5 days after correction of serum sodium level. The condition is typically irreversible and often devastating.
833) Ovarian Vein Thrombosis
(OVT) is a rare condition most often seen in the immediate postpartum period. The dominant symptom of clinically significant ovarian vein thrombosis is a pain in the lower abdomen / right lower quadrant pain and fever, which usually appears approximately ten days postpartum with no response to antibiotic treatment. There may occasionally be a palpable mass felt in the right iliac fossa. Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is a rare condition most often seen in the immediate postpartum period. OVT has been reported in approximately 0.05–0.18% of vaginal births and in 2% of births by Caesarean section 1. Typical symptoms include fever, abdominal mass and pelvic pain 2.
834) Overlap Syndrome
Is a medical condition which shares features of at least two more widely recognised disorders. Examples of overlap syndromes can be found in many medical specialties such as overlapping connective tissue disorders in rheumatology, and overlapping genetic disorders in cardiology. Key diagnostic factors: digital pallor/pain, arthritis/arthralgia, swollen hands, sclerodactyly, nail fold vascular changes, dyspnea or cough, GERD and heartburn, myalgias or myositis.
835) Paediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated With Streptococcal Infection
Is short for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections. A child may be diagnosed with PANDAS when: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), tic disorder, or both suddenly appear following a streptococcal (strep) infection, such as strep throat or scarlet fever. An autoimmune response to a streptococcal infection is the leading theory as to the cause of PANDAS. It is diagnosed if there is a history of abrupt development of a number of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with a group A streptococcal (the type of bacteria causing strep throat) infection.
836) Paget-Schroetter Syndrome
Paget–Schroetter disease (also known as venous thoracic outlet syndrome), is a form of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a medical condition in which blood clots form in the deep veins of the arms. These DVTs typically occur in the axillary and/or subclavian veins. Swelling and arm discomfort are the most frequent presenting problems. Other symptoms include heaviness, redness of arm, cyanosis and dilated, visible veins across the shoulder and upper arm (Urschel’s sign). Symptom onset is usually acute or sub-acute but an occasional patient can present with chronic symptoms.
837) Palindromic Rheumatism
Is a form of inflammatory arthritis. It causes attacks or flare-ups of joint pain and inflammation that come and go. The joints look and feel normal between attacks, and the attacks don’t cause any lasting damage to the joints. (PR) is an autoimmune related disease characterized by sudden, multiple, and recurring attacks of joint pain and swelling, typically in the hands and feet.
838) Palisaded Neutrophilic Granulomatous Dermatitis
(PNGD) is an inflammatory cutaneous disorder of unknown etiology that usually manifests as skin-colored to erythematous papules or plaques on the extremities (picture 1A-B). PNGD typically occurs in association with systemic disease.
839) Palmoplantar Keratoderma
(PPK) is a group of skin conditions characterized by thickening of the skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. PPK can also be a feature of various underlying syndromes. In rare forms of PPK, organs other than the skin may also be affected. Signs and symptoms of punctate palmoplantar keratoderma type 1 tend to become evident between the ages of 10 to 30 years. Symptoms include multiple tiny, hard, round bumps of thickened skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. These bumps may join to form calluses on pressure points, which may cause pain.
840) Palpable Purpura
Is a condition where purpura, which constitutes visible non-blanching hemorrhages, are raised and able to be touched or felt upon palpation. It indicates some sort of vasculitis secondary to a serious disease. (raised purple-red spots) pain and burning. Itchiness. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), formerly referred to as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, is a form of purpura with an unknown cause. Patients with ITP experience platelet destruction in the bloodstream. This leaves them more at risk of the bleeding that creates purpura’s typical rash.
Is inflammation of the pancreas. The pancreas is a long, flat gland that sits tucked behind the stomach in the upper abdomen. The pancreas produces enzymes that help digestion and hormones that help regulate the way your body processes sugar (glucose). Acute pancreatitis signs and symptoms include: Upper abdominal pain. Abdominal pain that radiates to your back. Tenderness when touching the abdomen. Fever. Rapid pulse. Nausea. Vomiting.
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). The disease may develop due to reactivation of the measles virus or an inappropriate immune response to the measles virus. Parent Disease: Neurological disorder. Type of infectious agent: Virus. Signs & Symptoms: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a progressive disease which results in personality changes, outbursts of temper, sleeplessness, disorientation, stupor, spasticity, loss of previously acquired intellectual skills, poor memory and judgment (dementia), and general neurological deterioration.
(PP) is a rare condition that may present clinically like an incomplete central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Clinically, papillophlebitis is characterized by mild but protracted monocular visual impairment, edema of the optic disc, retinal venous engorgement, and perivenous retinal hemorrhages that often resemble the atherosclerotic occlusion of the central retinal vein typically seen in elderly patients.
844) Paradoxical Embolism
(PDE) occurs when a thrombus crosses an intracardiac defect into the systemic circulation. Patients may present with symptoms based on the site of the resultant embolization. These sites can include the brain, heart, gastrointestinal tract, or extremities. PE may present physically with the following: Tachypnea. Hypotension. Central cyanosis. Tachycardia. Low-grade fever. Jugular venous distention. Accentuated pulmonic component of the second heart sound. New-onset atrial fibrillation (sometimes a subtle sign of PE).
845) Parainfluenzae Viral Laryngotracheobronchitis
Different Types of HPIVs. HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 both cause croup, with HPIV-1 most often identified as the cause in children. Both can also cause upper and lower respiratory illness, and cold-like symptoms. HPIV-3 is more often associated with bronchiolitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Laryngotracheobronchitis (ie, croup) is a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract that causes varying degrees of airway obstruction but that, with aggressive emergent management, only infrequently requires hospital admission.
846) Paraneoplastic Dermatomyositis
Is an uncommon idiopathic inflammatory myopathy that can manifest as a paraneoplastic syndrome of an underlying malignancy. Here, we report a case of a patient who presented with breast cancer and DM symptoms.DM is progressive symmetric weakness of proximal limbs and anterior flexor muscles of the neck, dermatological signs including heliotropic rash, poikiloderma, Grotton’s papules, and dermatitis on elbows, knees or feet, necrosis of type 1 and 2 on muscle biopsy, abnormal electromyography, and elevated muscle enzyme levels. Some cases present with alterations in nail bed vascularity and periungal hyperemia due to microhemorrhages and capillary enlargement.
847) Paraneoplastic Pemphigus
(PNP) is a fatal autoimmune blistering disease associated with an underlying malignancy. It is a newly recognized blistering disease, which was first recognized in 1990 by Dr Anhalt who described an atypical pemphigus with associated neoplasia. Paraneoplastic conditions occur in association with malignancies (cancer). Paraneoplastic pemphigus is characterised by painful blisters and denuded areas of the mouth, lips, oesophagus and skin. It is the least common but most serious form of pemphigus, particularly considering the presence of the underlying cancer.
848) Paraneoplastic Thrombosis
Site of Cancer. The primary site of the cancer is frequently identified as a risk factor for VTE, with cancers of the pancreas, uterus, lung, stomach, and kidney, and primary brain tumours associated with an increased risk of VTE. Paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system are a group of uncommon disorders that develop in some people who have cancer. Paraneoplastic syndromes can also affect other organ systems including hormones (endocrine), skin (dermatologic), blood (hematologic) and joints (rheumatologic).
849) Paresis Cranial Nerve
A palsy is a lack of function of a nerve. A cranial nerve palsy may cause a partial weakness or complete paralysis of the areas served by the affected nerve. A palsy of the 3rd cranial nerve can impair eye movements, the response of pupils to light, or both. These palsies can occur when pressure is put on the nerve or the nerve does not get enough blood. Microvascular cranial nerve palsy can cause double vision, droopy eyelid, and other problems with eyesight. Third nerve palsy can cause an eyelid to sag and droop, double vision, trouble moving the eye, and a pupil that is bigger than normal. Fourth nerve palsy causes the eye or eyes to turn abnormally.
850) Parietal Cell Antibody Positive
The parietal cells make and release a substance that the body needs to absorb vitamin B12. Antiparietal cell antibodies is a test that measures the presence of antibodies against gastric parietal cells. Ninety percent of people with pernicious anemia test positive for antiparietal cell antibodies. A positive result indicates the presence of IgG antibodies to H(+)/K(+) ATPase and maybe suggestive of pernicious anemia (PA) or a related autoimmune disease.
851) Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria
(PNH) is a rare, acquired, life-threatening disease of the blood. The disease is characterized by destruction of red blood cells, blood clots, and impaired bone marrow function. PNH is closely related to aplastic anemia. PNH arises in the setting of autoimmune bone marrow failure, as occurs in most cases of acquired aplastic anemia. Researchers believe that defective PNH stem cells survive the misguided attack by the immune system and multiply, while healthy stem cells are destroyed, resulting in the development of PNH. Symptoms: Abdominal, chest, and lumbar pain and symptoms of severe anemia may occur; gross hemoglobinuria and splenomegaly are common. Manifestations of vascular thrombosis depend on the affected vessel and can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain or headache, in addition to leg or arm swelling.
852) Partial Seizures
Occur when this electrical activity remains in a limited area of the brain. The seizures can sometimes turn into generalized seizures, which affect the whole brain. This is called secondary generalization. Partial seizures can be divided into: Simple, not affecting awareness or memory. Symptoms of simple partial seizures are: Muscle tightening. Unusual head movements. Blank stares. Eyes moving from side to side. Numbness. Tingling. Skin crawling (like ants crawling on the skin). Hallucinations seeing, smelling, or hearing things that are not there.
853) Partial Seizures With Secondary Generalisation
Secondary generalization occurs when partial seizures spread to both sides of the brain, which results in tonic-clonic seizures and loss of consciousness. Secondary generalization is a phenomenon in which the seizure starts focally and ends with bilateral motor activity. Clinically, it may start with confusion, a somatosensory aura, or focal twitching and proceed at varying rates and with varying symptoms to a convulsion that may be tonic, clonic, or both.
854) Patient Isolation
According to the CDC, isolation is the act of separating a sick individual with a contagious disease from healthy individuals without that contagious disease in order to protect the general public from exposure of a contagious disease. There are three categories of Transmission-Based Precautions: Contact Precautions, Droplet Precautions, and Airborne Precautions.
855) Pelvic Venous Thrombosis
Occurs when a blood clot occurs that obstructs the blood flow in one of your pelvic veins. Blood clots in the pelvic veins can be very serious because they not only have the potential to cause localized problems, they may also break loose and travel to the lungs. Symptoms include pelvic pain, back pain, fever, vomiting, nausea, chills, and at times, a ropelike mass that can be felt in the abdomen.
Is a rare autoimmune disorder that can develop at any age, including in kids, but that most often affects the elderly. Pemphigoid is caused by a malfunction of the immune system and results in skin rashes and blistering on the legs, arms, and abdomen. Bullous pemphigoid is caused by a problem with the immune system (the body’s defence against infection). The signs and symptoms of bullous pemphigoid may include: Itching skin, weeks or months before blisters form. Large blisters that don’t easily rupture when touched, often along creases or folds in the skin. Skin around the blisters that is normal, reddish or darker than normal. Eczema or a hive-like rash.
Is a rare skin disorder characterized by blistering of your skin and mucous membranes. The most common type is pemphigus vulgaris, which involves painful sores and blisters on your skin and in your mouth. Pemphigus affects the outer of the skin (epidermis) and causes lesions and blisters that are easily ruptured. Pemphigoid affects a lower layer of the skin, between the epidermis and the dermis, creating tense blisters that do not break easily. Sometimes pemphigoid may look like hives or eczema without blisters.Pemphigus is an autoimmune disorder. With an autoimmune condition, proteins in your immune system called antibodies attack your body’s own cells. The particular autoimmune reaction involved with pemphigus causes blisters.
858) Penile Vein Thrombosis
Thrombosis of the dorsal vein of the penis is a rare disorder that tends to affect males in the age range of 21–70 years old. Correctly diagnosing this benign condition is imperative so that the physician can allay the patient’s fears of having a sexually transmitted disease, erectile dysfunction, or cancer. Blood clots can cause pain along with visibly enlarged penis veins. You may notice the pain more when you get an erection. The affected veins may feel firm or tender to the touch even when your penis is flaccid.
Is swelling and irritation of the thin, saclike tissue surrounding the heart (pericardium). Pericarditis often causes sharp chest pain. The chest pain occurs when the irritated layers of the pericardium rub against each other. Pericarditis is usually mild and goes away without treatment. A common symptom of acute pericarditis is a sharp, stabbing chest pain, usually coming on quickly. It’s often is in the middle or left side of the chest, and there may be pain in one or both shoulders. Sitting up and leaning forward tends to ease the pain, while lying down and breathing deep worsens it.
860) Pericarditis Lupus
Is the most common heart problem associated with active lupus and occurs in about 25% of people with SLE. The condition occurs when the pericardium—the thin membrane surrounding your heart—becomes swollen and irritated, causing it to leak fluid around the heart. Examples of autoimmune diseases associated with pericarditis include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and Behçet’s disease. Autoinflammatory syndromes are rare and usually inherited. The most common in which pericarditis occurs is familial Mediterranean fever (FMF).
861) Perihepatic Discomfort
Right upper quadrant abdominal pain is caused by perihepatic inflammation and adhesion formation between the anterior surface of the liver and the abdominal wall. The pain is usually worse with movement and breathing, thereby mimicking other acute abdominal pathologies. Perihepatitis (hepatic capsular enhancement) is defined as inflammation of the peritoneal capsule of the liver.
862) Periorbital Oedema
Periorbital edema is a term for swelling around the eyes. The area around the eyes is called the eye socket or eye orbit. Clogged or malfunctioning tear glands can cause inflammation around the eyes. An obstruction of part of the heart called the superior vena cava can cause blood to build up in body parts above the heart, resulting in periorbital edema. Also called pink eye, this viral disease causes inflammation and redness of the eyes.
863) Periorbital Swelling
Clogged or malfunctioning tear glands can cause inflammation around the eyes. An obstruction of part of the heart called the superior vena cava can cause blood to build up in body parts above the heart, resulting in periorbital edema. Also called pink eye, this viral disease causes inflammation and redness of the eyes. Periorbital edema is a term for swelling around the eyes. The area around the eyes is called the eye socket or eye orbit. Sometimes people refer to this condition as periorbital puffiness or puffy eyes. You can have periorbital edema in just one eye or both at the same time.
864) Peripheral Artery Thrombosis
When PVD affects only the arteries and not the veins, it is called peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The main forms that PVD may take include blood clots (for example, deep vein thrombosis or DVT), swelling (inflammation), or narrowing and blockage of the blood vessels. Arterial thrombosis is a blood clot in an artery, which can be very serious because it can stop blood reaching important organs. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body and the heart muscle.
865) Peripheral Embolism
An arterial embolism may be caused by one or more clots. The clots can get stuck in an artery and block blood flow. The blockage starves tissues of blood and oxygen. This can result in damage or tissue death (necrosis). In 134 major peripheral emboli involving 160 limbs in 114 patients, the limb survival rate was 85% and the hospital mortality rate was 30%.
866) Peripheral Ischaemia
Ischemia is characterized by impaired blood supply to the tissues. Peripheral ischemia may result from many clinical reasons such as narrowed, blocked, or clotted arteries, which subsequently starve tissues of the necessary nutrients and oxygen. Myocardial ischemia results from improper blood supply to the heart. Peripheral Vascular Disease Symptoms: Buttock pain. Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the legs. Burning or aching pain in the feet or toes while resting. A sore on a leg or a foot that will not heal. One or both legs or feet feeling cold or changing color (pale, bluish, dark reddish). Loss of hair on the legs. Impotence.
867) Peripheral Vein Thrombus Extension
A peripheral venous catheter is a thin, flexible tube that is inserted into a vein. It is usually inserted into the lower part of the arm or the back of the hand. It is used to give intravenous fluids, blood transfusions, chemotherapy, and other drugs. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one or more of the deep veins in your body, usually in your legs. Deep vein thrombosis can cause leg pain or swelling but also can occur with no symptoms. You can get DVT if you have certain medical conditions that affect how your blood clots.
868) Periportal Oedema
Periportal halos which may be due to blood are commonly seen in patients with liver trauma. Periportal edema may cause this sign in patients with congestive heart failure and secondary liver congesion, hepatitis, or enlarged lymph nodes and tumors in the porta hepatis which obstruct lymphatic drainage.
869) Peritoneal Fluid Protein Abnormal
Abnormal appearances may give clues to conditions or diseases present and may include: Yellow with liver disease, milky from obstruction of the lymphatic system, and greenish from bile. Reddish peritoneal fluid may indicate the presence of blood, most often due to trauma.
870) Peritoneal Fluid Protein Decreased
Peritoneal fluid is a normal, lubricating fluid found in the peritoneal cavity—the space between the layers of tissue that line the belly’s wall and the abdominal organs (such as the liver, spleen, gall bladder, and stomach).
871) Peritoneal Fluid Protein Increased
Physical characteristics—fluid generally appears clear or straw-colored. Protein—less than 3 g/dL. Albumin level—low (typically evaluated as the difference between serum albumin and peritoneal fluid albumin, termed serum-ascites albumin gradient, or SAAG; values above 1.1 g/dL are considered evidence of a transudate.) Analysis of the ascitic fluid in both patients revealed a high protein content and an elevated serum-ascites gradient. Various studies showed the cause of the ascites to be constrictive pericardial disease.
872) Peritonitis Lupus
Chronic Lupus Peritonitis Is Characterized by the Ascites with a Large Content of Interleukin-6. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease and can cause multi-organ damage. Peritoneal involvement, also called lupus peritonitis, is a rare but sometimes fatal manifestation. Acute lupus peritonitis appeared during generalized lupus flare, with nausea, vomiting, frequent diarrhea, and abdominal tenderness with rebound and guarding.
873) Pernicious Anaemia
Is an autoimmune condition that affects your stomach. An autoimmune condition means your immune system, the body’s natural defence system that protects against illness and infection, attacks your body’s healthy cells. Vitamin B12 is combined with a protein called intrinsic factor in your stomach. Symptoms of pernicious anemia may include fatigue, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate, jaundice or pallor, tingling and numbness of hands and feet, loss of appetite, diarrhea, unsteadiness when walking, bleeding gums, impaired sense of smell, and confusion. It is one of the causes of vitamin B12 deficiency, is an autoimmune condition that prevents your body from absorbing vitamin B12. Left untreated, pernicious anemia can cause serious medical issues, including irreversible damage to your nervous system.
874) Petit Mal Epilepsy
Epilepsy characterized by mild seizures marked by diminished awareness usually with a blank stare but not by loss of consciousness also : one of these seizures — compare grand mal. An absence seizure, which used to be called a “petit mal”, is where you lose awareness of your surroundings for a short time. They mainly affect children, but can happen at any age. Absences: stare blankly into space, look like they’re “daydreaming”, flutter their eyes,make slight jerking movements of their body or limbs.
875) Pharyngeal Oedema
Laryngeal edema is caused by several conditions, including a viral or bacterial infection known as acute epiglottitis,[1,2] allergic reactions such as angioedema or anaphylaxis in association with ingesting of foods or drugs, and trauma of the larynx. The clinical signs of laryngeal edema were dysphagia; the sensation of a lump in the throat; a feeling of tightness in the throat; voice changes, including hoarseness and roughness; and dyspnea. In patients with progressed laryngeal edema, mostly fear of asphyxiation and aphonia also occurred.
876) Pharyngeal Swelling
Pharyngitis is caused by swelling in the back of the throat (pharynx) between the tonsils and the voice box (larynx). Most sore throats are caused by colds, the flu, coxsackie virus or mono (mononucleosis). Bacteria that can cause pharyngitis in some cases: Strep throat is caused by group A streptococcus. When bacteria or viruses get into your throat, they can cause an infection that makes your pharynx swollen, tender, and red. This is called pharyngitis. Often, Group A strep bacteria cause pharyngitis, known as strep throat.
877) Pityriasis Lichenoides Et Varioliformis Acuta
(PLEVA), or Mucha-Habermann disease (MHD), is a cutaneous disorder evident with crops of erythematous macules and papules, usually on the trunk and flexural areas of the extremities. Its etiology remains unknown. The etiology is uncertain but may be related to a hypersensitivity reaction to various infectious agents or drugs. It has also been associated with autoimmune disease. PLEVA is associated with the appearance of numerous, small papules that ulcerate and heal, leaving behind smallpox-like (varioliformis) scars. PLEVA is characterized by the sudden onset of red patches that quickly develop into scaling papules. Some people report having had infectious symptoms (such as a respiratory infection) prior to the onset. The papules may become filled with blood and/or pus or erode into crusted red-brown spots.
878) Placenta Praevia
Is when the placenta attaches inside the uterus but in an abnormal position near or over the cervical opening. Symptoms include vaginal bleeding in the second half of pregnancy. The bleeding is bright red and tends not to be associated with pain. Some of the possible causes and risk factors of placenta previa include: Low implantation of the fertilised egg. Abnormalities of the uterine lining, such as fibroids. Scarring of the uterine lining (endometrium). Symptoms: Bright red bleeding from the vagina during the second half of your pregnancy. It can range from light to heavy, and it’s often painless. Contractions along with the bleeding. You might feel the cramping or tightening that comes with contractions, or feel pressure in your back.
879) Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis
(PPFE) is a rare lung disease, usually associated with scarring (fibrosis) of the lungs. It tends to affect the upper lobes of the lungs and cause scarring to the area beneath the lung lining (the pleura) and the lung (parenchyma) itself. The cause of idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis is unknown, but clinical data suggest a link to recurrent pulmonary infection. Genetic and autoimmune mechanisms are also thought to play a role in this disease. The main symptoms are nonproductive cough and exertional dyspnea, which are also observed in IPF. Such symptoms appear insidiously. Chest pain due to pneumothorax may be the first symptom in some patients. Many patients complain of weight loss.
Is the presence of gas in the biliary system. It is typically detected by ultrasound or a radiographic imaging exam, such as CT, or MRI. It is a common finding in patients that have recently undergone biliary surgery or endoscopic biliary procedure. The most common conditions associated with pneumobilia include: 1) a biliary-enteric surgical anastamosis, 2) an incompetent sphincter of Oddi, or 3) a spontaneous biliary-enteric fistula.
Is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus (purulent material), causing cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing. A variety of organisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, can cause pneumonia. The signs and symptoms of pneumonia may include: Cough, which may produce greenish, yellow or even bloody mucus. Fever, sweating and shaking chills. Shortness of breath. Rapid, shallow breathing. Sharp or stabbing chest pain that gets worse when you breathe deeply or cough.Loss of appetite, low energy, and fatigue.
882) Pneumonia Adenoviral
Adenoviruses are ubiquitous DNA viruses that cause a wide variety of illnesses, including pneumonia, in children and adults. Forty-one distinct human sero-types have been identified, yet only about six of these serotypes are associated with the majority of the cases of adenovirus-induced pneumonia. Symptoms: common cold or flu-like symptoms, fever, sore throat, acute bronchitis (inflammation of the airways of the lungs, sometimes called a “chest cold”), pneumonia (infection of the lungs), pink eye (conjunctivitis).
883) Pneumonia Cytomegaloviral
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can occur in people who have a suppressed immune system. Most people with acquired CMV have no noticeable symptoms, but if symptoms do occur, they may include: fever, night sweats, tiredness and uneasiness, sore throat, swollen glands, joint and muscle pain, low appetite and weight loss. CMV is a type of herpesvirus. Eight different herpesviruses infect people: Three herpesviruses—herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, and varicella-zoster… read more (herpesvirus type 5). Blood tests show that 60 to 90% of adults have had a CMV infection at some time.
884) Pneumonia Herpes Viral
HSV) pneumonia is rare and is usually seen in immunocompromised patients. Patients with hematologic malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) are at risk. Most of the cases of HSV pneumonia are caused by HSV-1; however, cases caused by HSV-2 have also been reported.
885) Pneumonia Influenzal
Influenza (flu) is a highly contagious viral infection that is one of the most severe illnesses of the winter season. Influenza is spread easily from person to person, usually when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Pneumonia is a serious infection or inflammation of the lungs. The signs and symptoms of pneumonia may include: Cough, which may produce greenish, yellow or even bloody mucus. Fever, sweating and shaking chills. Shortness of breath. Rapid, shallow breathing. Sharp or stabbing chest pain that gets worse when you breathe deeply or cough. Loss of appetite, low energy, and fatigue.
886) Pneumonia Measles
Pneumonia is a common complication of measles. People with compromised immune systems can develop an especially dangerous variety of pneumonia that is sometimes fatal. Encephalitis. About 1 in 1,000 people with measles develops a complication called encephalitis. Symptoms: Fever. Dry cough. Runny nose. Sore throat. Inflamed eyes (conjunctivitis). Tiny white spots with bluish-white centers on a red background found inside the mouth on the inner lining of the cheek — also called Koplik’s spots. A skin rash made up of large, flat blotches that often flow into one another.
887) Pneumonia Mycoplasmal
Mycoplasma pneumonia (MP) is a type of bacteria that can cause many symptoms, including dry cough, fever, and mild shortness of breath on exertion. The Mycoplasma pneumonia bacterium is one of the most recognized of all human pathogens, and there are more than 200 different known species. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is spread from person to person from respiratory droplets, such as when someone coughs or sneezes. Someone can also touch something that has the bacteria on it, such as a door handle, and then touch their eye, nose or mouth and be infected. Typical symptoms include fever, cough, bronchitis, sore throat, headache and tiredness. A common result of mycoplasma infection is pneumonia (sometimes called “walking pneumonia” because it is usually mild and rarely requires hospitalization).
888) Pneumonia Necrotising
Is a severe form of community-acquired pneumonia characterized by rapid progression of consolidation to necrosis and cavitation which may lead to pulmonary gangrene. Morbidity and mortality are high and chronic sequelae are frequent. Lung necrosis (i.e. necrotising pneumonia) and lung abscess are complications of severe parenchymal infection. Necrotising pneumonia occurs when infected lung compresses and occludes alveolar capillaries, resulting in decreased vascular supply to the lung parenchyma. In necrotizing pneumonia, there is a substantial liquefaction following death of the lung tissue, which may lead to gangrene formation in the lung. In most cases patients with NP have fever, cough and bad breath, and those with more indolent infections have weight loss.
889) Pneumonia Parainfluenzae Viral
(HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in infants and young children. But anyone can get HPIV illness. Symptoms may include fever, runny nose, and cough. Parainfluenza refers to a group of viruses called human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs). There are four viruses in this group. Each one causes different symptoms and illnesses. All forms of HPIV cause an infection in either the upper or lower respiratory area of a person’s body.
890) Pneumonia Respiratory Syncytial Viral
RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lung) and pneumonia (infection of the lungs) in children younger than 1 year of age in the United States. Know the symptoms to look for and how to care for people with RSV. Symptoms and Care: Runny nose. Decrease in appetite. Coughing. Sneezing. Fever. Wheezing.
891) Pneumonia Viral
Pneumonia is inflamed or swollen lung tissue due to infection with a germ. Viral pneumonia is caused by a virus, such as coronavirus. The signs and symptoms of pneumonia may include: Cough, which may produce greenish, yellow or even bloody mucus. Fever, sweating and shaking chills. Shortness of breath. Rapid, shallow breathing. Sharp or stabbing chest pain that gets worse when you breathe deeply or cough. Loss of appetite, low energy, and fatigue.
892) Poems Syndrome
Is a rare blood disorder that damages your nerves and affects other parts of your body. POEMS stands for these signs and symptoms: Polyneuropathy. Numbness, tingling and weakness in your legs — and over time, maybe in your hands — and difficulty breathing. The name POEMS is an acronym for some of the disease’s major signs and symptoms (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, myeloma protein, and skin changes), as is PEP (polyneuropathy, endocrinopathy, plasma cell dyscrasia).
893) Polyarteritis Nodosa
Is a rare multi-system disorder characterized by widespread inflammation, weakening, and damage to small and medium-sized arteries. Blood vessels in any organ or organ system may be affected, including those supplying the kidneys, heart, intestine, nervous system, and/or skeletal muscles. The Symptoms of Polyarteritis Nodosa: a decreased appetite, sudden weight loss, abdominal pain, excessive fatigue, fever, muscle and joint aches.
Is a term used when five or more joints are affected with joint pain. There are many potential causes, so symptoms can vary widely from person to person. Polyarthritis can present as acute episodes or it may become chronic, lasting for more than six weeks. Polyarthritis can follow many viral infections. Symptoms include: pain, stiffness, swelling or redness in the affected area, a rash, tiredness or a lack of energy, a high temperature of 100.4 ºF (38 ºC) or above, sweating, lack of appetite.
Also called relapsing polychondritis, is a rare disease in which cartilage in many areas of the body becomes inflamed. The disease most commonly affects the ears, nose and the airways of the lungs. Common signs of relapsing polychondritis include: A dip in the bridge of your nose (“saddle nose” or “pug nose”). Ear pain and redness. Red, painful, and swollen eyes. Painful, swollen joints (hands, fingers, shoulders, elbows, knees, ankles, toes, pelvis) that may or may not happen along with arthritis. Rib pain.
896) Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome Type I
(APS-1) is a rare and complex recessively inherited disorder of immune-cell dysfunction with multiple autoimmunities. It presents as a group of symptoms including potentially life-threatening endocrine gland and gastrointestinal dysfunctions. It is caused by mutations in the AIRE gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. It is defined by the presence of ≥ 2 of the following: Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Autoimmune and endocrine disorders may develop in its recessive form.
897) Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome Type Ii
Is an autoimmune disorder that affects many hormone -producing (endocrine) glands. It is characterized by the presence of Addison’s disease along with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type 1 diabetes. Symptoms of this disorder may be shortness of breath, fatigue, weakness, rapid heartbeat, angina, anorexia, abdominal pain, indigestion, and possibly intermittent constipation and diarrhea. (For more information on this disorder choose “Pernicious Anemia” as your search term in the Rare Disease Database).
898) Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome Type Iii
Is an autoimmune condition that affects the body’s endocrine glands. The syndrome, which typically affects women during middle age, results from failure of the glands to produce their hormones .
899) Polyglandular Disorder
Polyglandular deficiency syndromes involve deficiencies in the function of several endocrine glands, which may occur simultaneously or sequentially. Nonendocrine organs also may be affected. Most cases are autoimmune; triggers are often unknown but may involve viruses, dietary substances, or drugs.
Is a condition characterized by abnormal development of the brain before birth. The surface of the brain normally has many ridges or folds, called gyri. In people with polymicrogyria, the brain develops too many folds, and the folds are unusually small. Bilateral forms of polymicrogyria tend to cause more severe neurological problems. Signs and symptoms of these conditions can include recurrent seizures (epilepsy), delayed development, crossed eyes, problems with speech and swallowing, and muscle weakness or paralysis.
901) Polymyalgia Rheumatica
Is an inflammatory disorder that causes muscle pain and stiffness, especially in the shoulders and hips. Signs and symptoms of polymyalgia rheumatica usually begin quickly and are worse in the morning. Symptoms: Aches or pain in your shoulders. Aches or pain in your neck, upper arms, buttocks, hips or thighs. Stiffness in affected areas, particularly in the morning or after being inactive for a time. Limited range of motion in affected areas. Pain or stiffness in your wrists, elbows or knees.
Is an uncommon inflammatory disease that causes muscle weakness affecting both sides of your body. Having this condition can make it difficult to climb stairs, rise from a seated position, lift objects or reach overhead. The common symptoms of polymyositis include: Muscle pain and stiffness. Muscle weakness, particularly in the belly (abdomen), shoulders, upper arms, and hips. Joint pain and stiffness. Trouble catching your breath. Problems with swallowing. Irregular heart rhythms, if the heart muscle becomes inflamed.
Is the simultaneous malfunction of many peripheral nerves throughout the body. Infections, toxins, drugs, cancers, nutritional deficiencies, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, and other disorders can cause many peripheral nerves to malfunction. Symptoms: tingling, numbness, pins and needles difficulty using the arms, legs, hands, or feet, increased pain (such as burning, stabbing, freezing, or shooting pains), sleep problems due to night-time pain. inability to feel pain,extreme sensitivity to touch.
904) Polyneuropathy Idiopathic Progressive
Is an illness where sensory and motor nerves of the peripheral nervous system are affected and no obvious underlying etiology is found. In many respects, the symptoms are very similar to diabetic polyneuropathy. Symptoms. In idiopathic sensory-motor polyneuropathy, the patients may experience unusual sensations (paresthesias), numbness and pain in their hands and feet. In addition, there may be weakness of the muscles in the feet and hands.
905) Portal Pyaemia
Portal pyaemia or pylephlebitis is a form of septic (often suppurative) thrombophlebitis of the portal venous system. It may develop as a complication of intra-abdominal sepsis, such as diverticulitis or appendicitis. Patients typically present with a high fever that is sometimes accompanied by jaundice. Portal pyaemia classically presents with upper abdominal pain, insidious in onset, gradually progressing, predominantly over epigastrium and right hypochondrium. Fever is a very common symptom, as is jaundice.
906) Portal Vein Embolism
(PVE) is a technique used before hepatic resection to increase the size of liver segments that will remain after surgery. (PVT) is a vascular disease of the liver that occurs when a blood clot occurs in the hepatic portal vein, which can lead to increased pressure in the portal vein system and reduced blood supply to the liver. The mortality rate is approximately 1 in 10. Other severe symptoms of portal vein thrombosis include: spiking fevers, chills, liver pain, vomiting blood, yellowing of the skin, or jaundice, varices and gastric bleeding, bloody or tarry stools.
907) Portal Vein Flow Decreased
The reduction in portal vein blood flow may relate to atherosclerosis, with a resulting decrease in mesenteric arterial blood flow. Symptoms and signs of portal hypertension include: Gastrointestinal bleeding: You may notice blood in the stools, or you may vomit blood if any large vessels around your stomach that developed due to portal hypertension rupture. Ascites: When fluid accumulates in your abdomen, causing swelling.
908) Portal Vein Pressure Increased
Is an increase in the pressure within the portal vein (the vein that carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver). The increase in pressure is caused by a blockage in the blood flow through the liver. The main symptoms and complications of portal hypertension include: Gastrointestinal bleeding marked by black, tarry stools or blood in the stools, or vomiting of blood due to the spontaneous rupture and hemorrhage from varices. Ascites (an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen).
909) Portal Vein Thrombosis
Is blockage or narrowing of the portal vein (the blood vessel that brings blood to the liver from the intestines) by a blood clot. Most people have no symptoms, but in some people, fluid accumulates in the abdomen, the spleen enlarges, and/or severe bleeding occurs in the esophagus. Portal vein thrombosis causes upper abdominal pain, possibly accompanied by nausea and an enlarged liver and/or spleen; the abdomen may be filled with fluid (ascites). A persistent fever may result from the generalized inflammation.
910) Portosplenomesenteric Venous Thrombosis
In patients with acute pancreatitis is associated with pancreatic necrosis and usually has a benign course. Acute PVT may be marked by abdominal pain, nausea, and/or vomiting, low back pain, and fever in the setting of septic portal vein thrombus (pylephlebitis). While a systemic inflammatory response may be seen in PVT, if there is evidence of high fever, chills, and bacteremia, pylephlebitis may be present.
911) Post Procedural Hypotension
The authors believe, however, that the most common cause of postoperative hypotension is that group of hematological factors which include transfusion reactions, hemolysis due to distilled water during transurethral resections, and acute or chronic loss of blood. The authors believe, however, that the most common cause of postoperative hypotension is that group of hematological factors which include transfusion reactions, hemolysis due to distilled water during transurethral resections, and acute or chronic loss of blood. Other factors that lead to hypotension can be listed as severe diabetes mellitus, dehydration, anaphylaxis, arrhythmia, shock, bleeding, and heart failure.
912) Post Procedural Pneumonia
Can be defined as either hospital-acquired pneumonia (pneumonia developing 48 – 72 h after admission) or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP, pneumonia developing 48 – 72 h after endotracheal intubation) occurring in the post-surgical patient. The symptoms of pneumonia include fever, chills and a cough. You may have chest pain and shortness of breath. You may have nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. You may feel fatigued.
913) Post Procedural Pulmonary Embolism
A pulmonary embolism occurs when a blood clot blocks one of the arteries in the lungs. A pulmonary embolism can happen after surgery if a blood clot forms inside one of the veins in the body and travels to the lungs. Although most people recover with treatment, a pulmonary embolism can sometimes be fatal.The risk of PE was elevated during the first 6 weeks after surgery regardless of the type. The excess risk of postoperative PE ranged from OR, 5.24 (95% CI, 3.91-7.01) for vascular surgery to OR, 8.34 (95% CI, 6.07-11.45) for surgery for fractures. These signs and symptoms when they develop pulmonary embolism: Shortness of breath (Dyspnea) which normally appears suddenly. Pleuritic chest pain which may be worsen with deep breath. Syncope. Dry or moist rales. Pleural friction rub may be audible. Cough with blood streak sputum or blood.
914) Post Stroke Epilepsy
Seizure and epilepsy after stroke is common. Late onset seizure has a higher recurrent rate compared with early onset seizure after a stroke. Atypical seizure forms can occur, particularly in the older people, and a high index of suspicion is required for the correct and early diagnosis of post‐stroke seizure. If you’ve had a stroke, you have an increased risk for having a seizure. Other possible symptoms of seizure include: confusion, altered emotions, changes in the way you perceive how things sound, smell, look, taste, or feel, a loss of muscle control, a loss of bladder control.
915) Post Stroke Seizure
Seizure after stroke or poststroke seizure (PSS) is a common and very important complication of stroke. It can be divided into early seizure and late seizure, depending on seizure onset time after the stroke. If you’ve had a stroke, you have an increased risk for having a seizure. Other possible symptoms of seizure include: confusion, altered emotions, changes in the way you perceive how things sound, smell, look, taste, or feel, a loss of muscle control, a loss of bladder control.
916) Post Thrombotic Syndrome
is a condition that can happen to people who have had a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the leg. The condition can cause chronic pain, swelling, and other symptoms in your leg. It may develop in the weeks or months following a DVT. It is a serious and painful condition that can last a long time. It occurs because of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The veins found in your legs and arms have small valves inside that help ensure the blood flows in the proper direction, back to the heart.
917) Post Viral Fatigue Syndrome
The main symptom of post-viral fatigue is a significant lack of energy. You might also feel exhausted, even if you’ve been getting plenty of sleep and resting. The main symptom of post-viral fatigue is a significant lack of energy. You might also feel exhausted, even if you’ve been getting plenty of sleep and resting.
918) Postictal Headache
(PIH) is defined by the International Classification of Headache Disorders as “headache with features of tension-type headache or, in a patient with migraine, of migraine headache, which develops within 3 hours following a partial or generalized seizure and resolves within 72 hours after the seizure.The pain of a postictal headache is widespread. It can be steady or throbbing and its intensity can range from mild to severe. These headaches usually last between about 6 and 24 hours, or sometimes even longer. They may be quite disabling, causing you to lose additional time out of your normal activities.
919) Postictal Paralysis
The postictal state is a period that begins when a seizure subsides and ends when the patient returns to baseline. It typically lasts between 5 and 30 minutes and is characterized by disorienting symptoms such as confusion, drowsiness, hypertension, headache, nausea, etc. Recognizing Postictal Paralysis: Mild or severe weakness. Complete paralysis of an arm or leg or one side of the body. Numbness. Changes in vision or vision loss. Vision loss.
Loss of bowel or bladder control. Confusion, drowsiness, and lack of responsiveness.
920) Postictal Psychosis
(PIP), an episode of psychosis occurring after a cluster of seizures, is common and may be associated with profound morbidity, including chronic psychosis. Symptoms are often pleomorphic, involving a range of psychotic symptoms, including hallucinations and disorders of thought. Symptoms: Thought disorder; Mania; Hallucination.
921) Postictal State
Is the abnormal condition occurring between the end of an epileptic seizure and return to baseline condition. Applying this definition operationally can be difficult, especially for complex partial seizures, where cognitive and sensorimotor impairments merge imperceptibly into the postictal state. The postictal state is a period that begins when a seizure subsides and ends when the patient returns to baseline. It typically lasts between 5 and 30 minutes and is characterized by disorienting symptoms such as confusion, drowsiness, hypertension, headache, nausea, etc.
922) Postoperative Respiratory Distress
The development of a postoperative respiratory insufficiency is typically caused by several factors and include patient-related risks, the extent of the procedure and postoperative complications. Morbidity and mortality rates in acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are high. Signs of Respiratory Distress: Breathing rate. An increase in the number of breaths per minute may mean that a person is having trouble breathing or not getting enough oxygen. Color changes.Grunting.Nose flaring. Retractions. Sweating. Wheezing.Body position.
923) Postoperative Respiratory Failure
Generally, postoperative respiratory failure is the failure to wean from mechanical ventilation within 48 hours of surgery or unplanned intubation/reintubation postoperatively. of stay, and increased mortality. As value-based purchasing evolves, quality will be increasingly linked to payment.
924) Postoperative Thrombosis
Is caused by a combination of local mechanical factors, including decreased venous blood flow in the lower extremities, and systemic changes in coagulation. The level of risk for postoperative thrombosis depends largely on the type of surgery performed.
925) Postpartum Thrombosis
Blood clots may also develop in the veins just under the skin in the legs. This disorder is called superficial venous thrombosis. The skin over the vein becomes red, swollen, and painful. Symptoms of a systemic blood clot in the postpartum period include: chest pain or pressure, loss of balance, pain or numbness only on one side, sudden loss of strength on one side of the body, sudden, severe headache, swelling or pain in only one leg, trouble breathing.
926) Postpartum Venous Thrombosis
The most common symptoms of deep vein thrombosis during pregnancy and postpartum usually occur in just one leg and include: A heavy or painful feeling in the leg (a lot of people say that it feels like a really bad pulled muscle that doesn’t go away) Tenderness, warmth and/or redness in the calf or thigh.
927) Postpericardiotomy Syndrome
(PPS) is worsening or new formation of pericardial and/or pleural effusion mostly 1 to 6 weeks after cardiac surgery, as a result of autoimmune inflammatory reaction within pleural and pericardial space. Postpericardectomy syndrome is characterized by malaise, fever, leukocytosis, myalgia, atrial arrhythmias, pleuritic chest pain, dyspnea and, occasionally, pericardial tamponade. The syndrome has been reported to occur in up to 17% of patients after cardiac surgery and is thought to have an autoimmune basis.
928) Post-Traumatic Epilepsy
(PTE) refers to recurrent and unprovoked post-traumatic seizures (PTS) that occur at least 1 week after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Seizures during the first week after TBI are considered to be provoked by the head injury and known as early PTS. Symptoms can include staring and unresponsiveness, stiffening or shaking of the body, legs, arms or head; strange sound, taste, visual images, feeling or smell; inability to speak or understand, etc. TBI is the most significant cause of symptomatic epilepsy in people from 15 to 24 years of age.
929) Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome
(POTS) is a condition that affects blood flow. POTS causes the development of symptoms — usually lightheadedness, fainting and an uncomfortable, rapid increase in heartbeat — that come on when standing up from a reclining position and relieved by sitting or lying back down. Typical symptoms of PoTS include: dizziness or lightheadedness, fainting, problems with thinking, memory and concentration – this combination of symptoms is often called “brain fog”, heart palpitations, shaking and sweating, weakness and fatigue (tiredness), headaches,poor sleep.
930) Precerebral Artery Thrombosis
A precerebral artery is an artery leading to the cerebrum, but not in the cerebrum. The RMA has defined “precerebral artery” as meaning “extracerebral arteries supplying the brain, including the carotid artery, vertebral artery, basilar artery and ascending aorta”. Disease of the artery includes atherosclerosis, dissection, thrombosis, aneurysm or other pathological process of that artery.
Is a condition that affects some pregnant women usually during the second half of pregnancy (from around 20 weeks) or immediately after delivery of their baby. Women with pre-eclampsia have high blood pressure, fluid retention (oedema) and protein in the urine (proteinuria). Preeclampsia Symptoms: Weight gain over 1 or 2 days because of a large increase in bodily fluid. Shoulder pain. Belly pain, especially in the upper right side. Severe headaches. Change in reflexes or mental state. Peeing less or not at all. Dizziness. Trouble breathing.
932) Preictal State
The most common symptoms of a prodrome include confusion, anxiety, irritability, headache, tremor, and anger or other mood disturbances. About 20% of individuals with epilepsy experience this stage,3 which may serve as a warning sign of seizure onset for those who experience it. The first stage of a seizure, an aura, is also described as the pre-ictal phase. This stage occurs immediately before the ictal stage of a seizure and it can last from a few seconds to an hour in duration. Most people are aware of their own symptoms during a seizure aura.
933) Premature Labour
Preterm labor occurs when regular contractions result in the opening of your cervix after week 20 and before week 37 of pregnancy. Preterm labor can result in premature birth. The earlier premature birth happens, the greater the health risks for your baby. The warning signs of preterm labor: Contractions (your belly tightens like a fist) every 10 minutes or more often. Change in vaginal discharge (leaking fluid or bleeding from your vagina) Pelvic pressure—the feeling that your baby is pushing down. Low, dull backache. Cramps that feel like your period.
934) Premature Menopause
Is menopause that occurs before the age of 40 years. Early menopause can be induced by some medical treatments such as surgery or chemotherapy. Women who experience early or premature menopause may need hormone therapy to reduce the risk of diseases such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Symptoms of premature and early menopause: menstrual cycle changes, including changes to the usual bleeding pattern, particularly irregular bleeding, hot flushes, sweats, sleep disturbance, urinary problems, such as increased frequency of urination or incontinence, vaginal dryness, increase in mood changes.
935) Primary Amyloidosis
Is a rare disorder in which abnormal proteins build up in tissues and organs. Clumps of the abnormal proteins are called amyloid deposits. This is the most common type and used to be called primary amyloidosis. AL stands for “amyloid light chains,” which is the type of protein responsible for the condition. There’s no known cause, but it happens when your bone marrow makes abnormal antibodies that can’t be broken down.
936) Primary Biliary Cholangitis
Previously called primary biliary cirrhosis, is a chronic disease in which the bile ducts in your liver are slowly destroyed. Bile is a fluid made in your liver. It aids with digestion and helps you absorb certain vitamins.Three symptoms of primary biliary cholangitis: Dry eyes and mouth. Pain in the upper right abdomen. Swelling of the spleen (splenomegaly). Bone, muscle or joint (musculoskeletal) pain. Swollen feet and ankles (edema). Buildup of fluid in the abdomen due to liver failure (ascites).
937) Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis
PPMS is characterized by worsening neurologic function (accumulation of disability) from the onset of symptoms, without early relapses or remissions. The symptoms of primary-progressive MS: Pain (for example, headaches, pain in the legs and feet, back pain, and muscle spasms). Electric-shock sensations that run down the back and limbs when the neck is bent (Lhermitte sign). Trouble walking. Vision problems. Muscle weakness. Trouble staying balanced. Paralysis.
938) Procedural Shock
Raise the patient’s legs (unless they have fractures or a snake bite) above the level of the heart, with head flat on the floor. Treat any wound or burn and immobilise fractures. Loosen tight clothing around neck, chest and waist. Maintain the patient’s body warmth with a blanket or similar. The symptoms of shock: Rapid, shallow breathing. Cold, clammy skin. Rapid, weak pulse. Dizziness or fainting. Weakness.
939) Proctitis Herpes
Is thought to progress from the perianal skin into the anal canal and then into the rectum. It occurs commonly in patient populations that are immunosuppressed from bone marrow or solid organ transplantation or from HIV/AIDS and in individuals who engage in anoreceptive intercourse. Sexually transmitted infections, spread particularly by people who engage in anal intercourse, can result in proctitis. Sexually transmitted infections that can cause proctitis include gonorrhea, genital herpes and chlamydia.
940) Proctitis Ulcerative
Ulcerative proctitis is characterized by inflammation, redness, and ulcerations of the lining of the rectum (the rectum is the last six inches of the large intestine). The word “ulcerative” is used because the disease actually causes the formation of sores/ulcers on the inner lining of the rectum. The cause of ulcerative proctitis is undetermined but there is considerable research evidence to suggest that interactions between environmental factors, intestinal flora, immune dysregulation, and genetic predisposition are responsible. It is unclear why the inflammation is limited to the rectum.
941) Progressive Facial Hemiatrophy
Is a craniofacial disorder characterized by progressive shrinking and deformation of one side of the face with atrophy of the subcutaneous connective and fatty tissues. The atrophy often progresses slowly for many years and then stabilizes. Other causes of abnormal facial expressions: Blepharospasm. Brain Trauma. Facial Paralysis. Hemifacial Spasm. Meige Syndrome. Myoclonus. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome. Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus.
942) Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
(PML) is a rare and often fatal viral disease characterized by progressive damage (-pathy) or inflammation of the white matter (leuko-) of the brain (-encephalo-) at multiple locations (multifocal). For most people, PML symptoms start subtly. The symptoms may vary depending on which part of your brain has the infection. Early symptoms may include: Clumsiness or lack of coordination. As the infection progresses, people may experience: Dementia. Speech loss. Vision loss.
943) Progressive Multiple Sclerosis
(PMS) is a clinical form of MS characterized by gradual accrual of disability independent of relapses over time. The symptoms of primary-progressive MS: Pain (for example, headaches, pain in the legs and feet, back pain, and muscle spasms). Electric-shock sensations that run down the back and limbs when the neck is bent (Lhermitte sign). Trouble walking. Vision problems. Muscle weakness. Trouble staying balanced. Paralysis.
944) Progressive Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis
Is the least common form. Relapses or attacks happen every so often, but symptoms continue and get worse between relapses. This type is rare enough that doctors don’t know much about it. Approximately 5% of people with multiple sclerosis have this form. In secondary-progressive MS, people may still experience relapses. These are then followed by partial recoveries or periods of remission, but the disease doesn’t disappear between cycles. Instead, it steadily worsens. “Fulminate MS” is a rapidly progressive disease course with severe relapses within five years after diagnosis; also known as “malignant MS” or “Marburg MS,” this form of very active MS may need to be treated more aggressively than other forms.
945) Prosthetic Cardiac Valve Thrombosis
Is potentially life-threatening, resulting in hemodynamically severe stenosis or regurgitation. “Thrombotic risk is related to the type of valve, position of the valve and adequacy of anticoagulation,” according to Vuyisile T. Factors that may increase your chances of prosthetic heart valve thrombosis include: Inadequate anticoagulant/blood thinning therapy after a valve transplant. Prosthesis located at the mitral valve in the heart. Atrial fibrillation. Signs and symptoms of mechanical valve thrombosis may include muffled mechanical heart sounds, a new murmur, dyspnea, heart failure and cardiogenic shock. Thrombosis of right-sided valves causes right-sided heart failure, characterized by swelling of the legs, abdomen or both, without pulmonary congestion.
Is the medical term for itchy skin. It’s the kind of itch that makes you want to scratch. Normally, itchy skin isn’t serious, but it can make you uncomfortable. Sometimes, itchy skin is caused by a serious medical condition. Causes of itchy skin include: Skin conditions. Examples include dry skin (xerosis), eczema (dermatitis), psoriasis, scabies, parasites, burns, scars, insect bites and hives. Symptoms of itchy skin: Redness. Bumps, spots or blisters. Dry, cracked skin. Leathery or scaly skin.
947) Pruritus Allergic
Pruritus (itch) is a major characteristic and one of the most debilitating symptoms in allergic and atopic diseases and the diagnostic hallmark of atopic dermatitis. Pruritus is regularly defined as an unpleasant sensation provoking the desire to scratch. Histamine is released by the body during allergic reactions, such as those to pollen, food, latex and medications. Pruriceptive itch is due to an allergic reaction, inflammation, dryness or other skin damage. It is seen in atopic dermatitis (eczema), urticaria (hives), psoriasis, drug reactions, mites and dry skin.
As mentioned previously, is a systemic disorder that mimics vasculitis in its clinical presentation. 3 Other causes of pseudovasculitis include antiphospholipid syndrome, infective endocarditis, fibromuscular dysplasia, thromboangiitis obliterans.
Is a skin disease that causes red, itchy scaly patches, most commonly on the knees, elbows, trunk and scalp. Psoriasis is a common, long-term (chronic) disease with no cure. It tends to go through cycles, flaring for a few weeks or months, then subsiding for a while or going into remission. Some of the early stages of this condition may be mistaken for other inflammatory skin conditions, such as eczema. Learn more about the early symptoms of psoriasis and how these might look and feel in different psoriasis subtypes.
950) Psoriatic Arthropathy
Is a type of arthritis that affects some people with the skin condition psoriasis. It typically causes affected joints to become swollen, stiff and painful. Like psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis is a long-term condition that can get progressively worse. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an autoimmune disease. that affects different parts of the body. When this happens, you may experience various symptoms, including joint pain, swelling, and skin lesions.
951) Pulmonary Amyloidosis
Is an uncommon disease, characterized by extracellular deposition of fibrillary protein in the lungs. It appears in three forms: tracheobronchial, nodular pulmonary, and alveolar septal. There are few reports of long-term observation of primary pulmonary amyloidosis. Amyloidosis is a disorder caused by misfolding of autologous protein and its extracellular deposition as fibrils, resulting in vital organ dysfunction and eventually death. Pulmonary amyloidosis may be localised or part of systemic amyloidosis.
952) Pulmonary Artery Thrombosis
(PE) occurs when a blood clot gets lodged in an artery in the lung, blocking blood flow to part of the lung. Blood clots most often start in the legs and travel up through the right side of the heart and into the lungs. This is called DVT . Other signs and symptoms that can occur with pulmonary embolism include: Rapid or irregular heartbeat. Lightheadedness or dizziness. Excessive sweating. Fever. Leg pain or swelling, or both, usually in the calf caused by a deep vein thrombosis. Clammy or discolored skin (cyanosis).
953) Pulmonary Embolism
Is a blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries in your lungs. In most cases, pulmonary embolism is caused by blood clots that travel to the lungs from deep veins in the legs or, rarely, from veins in other parts of the body (deep vein thrombosis). The Symptoms of Pulmonary Embolism: Shortness of breath. Chest pain that may become worse when breathing in. Cough, which may contain blood. Leg pain or swelling. Pain in your back. Excessive sweating. Lightheadedness, dizziness or passing out. Blueish lips or nails.
954) Pulmonary Fibrosis
Is a lung disease that occurs when lung tissue becomes damaged and scarred. This thickened, stiff tissue makes it more difficult for your lungs to work properly. As pulmonary fibrosis worsens, you become progressively more short of breath. There are a number of known causes of pulmonary fibrosis. Exposure to toxins like asbestos, coal dust or silica (including workers in the coal mining and sandblasting industry) can lead to pulmonary fibrosis. Signs and symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis may include: Shortness of breath (dyspnea). A dry cough. Fatigue. Unexplained weight loss. Aching muscles and joints. Widening and rounding of the tips of the fingers or toes (clubbing).
955) Pulmonary Haemorrhage
Is rare. It happens when blood leaks from blood vessels in the windpipe or airways into the main lung. Pulmonary haemorrhage can affect children of all ages. It can start gradually and continue for a long time or it can be a sudden life-threatening event. Common symptoms are difficulty breathing and coughing, often coughing up blood. People usually have a chest x-ray, blood tests, and sometimes examination of the breathing passages with a flexible viewing tube (bronchoscopy).
956) Pulmonary Microemboli
A stasis of blood on the venous side of the capillary bed results and leads to intravascular coagulation. When shock is corrected and the limbs are again perfused, the microemboli that have formed on the venous side are flushed into the lung, where they collect in the pulmonary arterioles and capillaries. The Symptoms of Pulmonary Embolism: Shortness of breath. Chest pain that may become worse when breathing in. Cough, which may contain blood. Leg pain or swelling. Pain in your back. Excessive sweating. Lightheadedness, dizziness or passing out. Blueish lips or nails.
957) Pulmonary Oil Microembolism
(PE) is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. It usually happens when a blood clot breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lungs. PE is a serious condition that can cause: Permanent damage to the lungs. Low oxygen levels in your blood. PULMONARY embolism is fortunately a rare. complication, following utero-salpingography. Several cases of oil embolism have been reported in the world literature. Oil embolism occurs when oily media enter the venous system.
958) Pulmonary Renal Syndrome
(PRS) describes the occurrence of renal failure in association with respiratory failure, characterised by autoimmune-mediated rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH), respectively. Pulmonary-renal syndromes are most commonly caused by an underlying autoimmune disease.
959) Pulmonary Sarcoidosis
Sarcoidosis is a rare disease caused by inflammation. It usually occurs in the lungs and lymph nodes, but it can occur in almost any organ. Sarcoidosis in the lungs is called pulmonary sarcoidosis. It causes small lumps of inflammatory cells in the lungs. The most common symptoms of pulmonary sarcoidosis are shortness of breath, which often gets worse with activity; dry cough that will not go away; chest pain; and wheezing. Treatment is generally done to control symptoms or to improve the function of organs affected by the disease. Steroids are often used.
960) Pulmonary Sepsis
Is a potentially life-threatening condition caused by the body’s response to an infection. If not recognized and treated quickly sepsis can lead to death. Some studies suggest as much as half the deaths that occur in a hospital are attributable to sepsis. The symptoms of sepsis: Fast heart rate. Fever or hypothermia (very low body temperature). Shaking or chills. Warm or clammy/sweaty skin. Confusion or disorientation.Hyperventilation (rapid breathing) or shortness of breath.
961) Pulmonary Thrombosis
Occurs when a clump of material, most often a blood clot, gets wedged into an artery in your lungs. These blood clots most commonly come from the deep veins of your legs, a condition known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT). In many cases, multiple clots are involved in pulmonary embolism. Signs and symptoms that can occur with pulmonary embolism include: Rapid or irregular heartbeat. Lightheadedness or dizziness. Excessive sweating. Fever. Leg pain or swelling, or both, usually in the calf caused by a deep vein thrombosis. Clammy or discolored skin (cyanosis).
962) Pulmonary Tumour Thrombotic Microangiopathy
(PTTM) is a rare condition characterized by microscopic tumor cell emboli, which cause proliferative changes in the pulmonary microvasculature leading to a syndrome of hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension, right heart failure and death.
963) Pulmonary Vasculitis
Is characterized by inflammation and destruction of pulmonary vasculature with subsequent tissue necrosis. These disorders can be divided into those that are part of a systemic autoimmune vasculitis and secondary cases. The symptoms of pulmonary vasculitis: coughing up blood. This can happen if there is bleeding from damaged blood vessels, difficulty breathing. Find out when to call 999 about your child’s breathing, coughing, chest pain.
964) Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease
(PVOD) is characterized by the blockage (occlusion) of the blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich (oxygenated) blood from the lungs to the heart (the pulmonary veins). It is a rare and fatal cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH) that is difficult to diagnose and treat. Symptoms: Shortness of breath. Dry cough. Fatigue on exertion. Fainting. Coughing up blood. Difficulty breathing while lying flat.
965) Pulmonary Venous Thrombosis
Is a rare and probably underdiagnosed condition that may present with dyspnoea, cough, chest pain and/or haemoptysis and can cause systemic arterial emboli. Pulmonary vein thrombosis may result from the hypercoagulable state in COVID-19. Lightheadedness or dizziness. Excessive sweating. Fever. Leg pain or swelling, or both, usually in the calf caused by a deep vein thrombosis.
966) Pyoderma Gangrenosum
Is a rare condition that causes large, painful sores (ulcers) to develop on your skin, most often on your legs. The exact causes of pyoderma gangrenosum are unknown, but it appears to be a disorder of the immune system. The cause of pyoderma gangrenosum is often not known. It may be related to overactivity of the immune system. Sometimes it may be caused by an injury or minor skin damage such as a needle prick, a biopsy or an insect bite. It can also be linked to a disease or illness.Pyoderma gangrenosum usually starts with a small, red bump on your skin, which may resemble a spider bite. Within days, this bump can develop into a large, painful open sore. The ulcer usually appears on your legs, but may develop anywhere on your body. Sometimes it appears around surgical sites.
967) Pyostomatitis Vegetans
Is a very rare oral disorder characterized by pustules that affect oral mucosa. The pathogenesis of Pyostomatitis vegetans is unknown, but there is a theory that an abnormal immune response in the course of IBD led to cross reaction of antigens in the skin and small bowel, leading to this mucocutaneous manifestation.The typical features of pyodermatitis vegetans include: redness, pustules, crusting, large raised (vegetating) plaques. Brown post-inflammatory pigmentation is prominent.
fever, also called pyrexia, abnormally high body temperature.
The most common causes of fever are infections such as colds and stomach bugs (gastroenteritis). Other causes include: Infections of the ear, lung, skin, throat, bladder, or kidney. Heat exhaustion. A high temperature is usually considered to be 38C or above. This is sometimes called a fever.
Is a strategy used to prevent transmission of COVID-19 by keeping people who have been in close contact with someone with COVID-19 apart from others.
970) Radiation Leukopenia
If a person’s body is producing fewer white blood cells than it should be, doctors call this leukopenia. Conditions that can cause leukopenia include: autoimmune conditions such as lupus and HIV. bone marrow damage, such as from chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or exposure to toxins. The symptoms of leukopenia: a fever of 100.4˚F (38˚C) or above, chills, sweating, sore throat, cough or shortness of breath, an area of your body that’s become red, swollen, or painful, an injury that’s draining pus, mouth sores or white patches in your mouth.
971) Radiculitis Brachial
Is characterized by sudden-onset pain—typically occurring at night—then subsequent weakness and numbness in the arm and shoulder. Most commonly, the condition occurs in men ages 20. Symptoms of brachial neuritis include: Severe pain in the upper arm or shoulder. Pain usually affecting just one side of the body. After a few hours or days, the pain transitions to weakness, limpness, or paralysis in the muscles of the affected arm or shoulde.
972) Radiologically Isolated Syndrome
Refers to an entity in which white matter lesions fulfilling the criteria for multiple sclerosis occur in individuals without a history of a clinical demyelinating attack or alternative etiology. Numbness or tingling in the arms, legs, or face. Slurred speech. Blurred vision or other eye problems. Muscle weakness. CIS is caused by inflammation and damage to myelin, the protective fatty substance that surrounds nerve cells in your brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system). This damage (called demyelination) disrupts the way nerve messages are carried to and from the brain and results in the symptoms you experience.
Is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture. A rash may be localized in one part of the body, or affect all the skin. Rashes may cause the skin to change color, itch, become warm, bumpy, chapped, dry, cracked or blistered, swell, and may be painful. Symptoms of Skin Rash: Itching. Skin redness. Flaking skin. Dry, scaly, or crusted skin that can become thick and leathery from scratching. Small, fluid-filled blisters that may ooze when scratched. Infection of the areas of broken skin.
974) Rash Erythematous
Erythema is a type of skin rash caused by injured or inflamed blood capillaries. It usually occurs in response to a drug, disease or infection. Rash severity ranges from mild to life threatening. Cutaneous erythematous reaction patterns are signs of hypersensitivity to inciting agents, both endogenous and exogenous. They include erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema nodosum and the figurate erythemas. A thorough evaluation is often necessary to identify the provocative agent.
975) Rash Pruritic
Itchy skin is often caused by dry skin. It’s common in older adults, as skin tends to become drier with age. Depending on the cause of your itchiness, your skin may appear normal, red, rough or bumpy. For temporary relief of itching, try these self-care measures: Avoid items or situations that cause you to itch. Moisturize daily; Treat the scalp; Reduce stress or anxiety; Try over-the-counter oral allergy medicine; Use a humidifier; Use creams, lotions or gels that soothe and cool the skin; Avoid scratching.
976) Rasmussen Encephalitis
Sometimes referred to as Rasmussen syndrome, is a rare disorder of the central nervous system characterized by chronic progressive inflammation (encephalitis) of one cerebral hemisphere. The cause of RE is unknown. The condition is linked to an autoimmune response. Some researchers think this response may be triggered by an infection such as the flu or measles. Symptoms: Severe partial seizures. Loss of motor skills. Loss of speech.Paralysis on one side of the body. Learning disabilities. Physical disabilities. Confusion.
977) Raynaud’s Phenomenon
Is a problem that causes decreased blood flow to the fingers. In some cases, it also causes less blood flow to the ears, toes, nipples, knees, or nose. This happens due to spasms of blood vessels in those areas. The spasms happen in response to cold, stress, or emotional upset. Abnormalities of magnesium metabolism have been reported in people with Raynaud’s disease. Symptoms similar to those seen with Raynaud’s disease occur in people with magnesium deficiency, probably because a deficiency of this mineral results in spasm of blood vessels.
978) Reactive Capillary Endothelial Proliferation
(RCCEP) is the most common adverse event related to camrelizumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, but lack of comprehensive analyses.
979) Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis
Relapsing-remitting MS is marked by relapses that last at least 24 hours. During a relapse, symptoms get worse. These are often the earliest symptoms of MS: Trouble seeing; Sensitivity to heat; Numbness, especially in the feet; Weakness; Fatigue; Difficulty thinking clearly; Depression; Needing to urinate urgently.
980) Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis
Is defined as MS in which patients have relapses of MS and periods of stability in between relapses. Relapses are episodes of new or worsening symptoms not caused by fever or infection and that last more than 48 hours. The symptoms of relapsing-remitting MS: Trouble seeing; Sensitivity to heat; Numbness, especially in the feet; Weakness; Fatigue; Difficulty thinking clearly; Depression; Needing to urinate urgently.
981) Renal Amyloidosis
Amyloid that builds up in the kidneys can damage the kidneys and affect the kidneys’ ability to filter blood. This damage can cause wastes to build up in your body, which may worsen kidney damage and lead to kidney failure. Signs and symptoms of amyloidosis may include: Swelling of your ankles and legs. Severe fatigue and weakness. Shortness of breath with minimal exertion. Unable to lie flat in bed due to shortness of breath. Numbness, tingling or pain in your hands or feet, especially pain in your wrist (carpal tunnel syndrome).
982) Renal Arteritis
It is believed to be due in part to a faulty immune response. The disorder has been linked to some infections and to certain genes. Giant cell arteritis is more common in people with another inflammatory disorder known as polymyalgia rheumatica. When symptoms do occur, they include abdominal pain, blood in your urine, and a rash on your buttocks or lower legs. Kidney specialists (nephrologists) at University of Miami Health System are experienced in diagnosing and treating renal vasculitis.
983) Renal Artery Thrombosis
Is the formation of a clot in a renal artery. A thrombosis of a renal artery may cause kidney failure because of blocked blood flow to the kidney. Symptoms: Sudden onset of flank (between the ribs and the upper border of the hip bone) pain and tenderness; Fever; Blood in the urine; Nausea and/or vomiting; Sudden decrease in kidney function; Hypertension.
984) Renal Embolism
Renal artery thrombosis symptoms: Sudden onset of flank (between the ribs and the upper border of the hip bone) pain and tenderness; Fever; Blood in the urine; Nausea and/or vomiting; Sudden decrease in kidney function; Hypertension.
985) Renal Failure
Acute kidney failure occurs when your kidneys suddenly become unable to filter waste products from your blood. When your kidneys lose their filtering ability, dangerous levels of wastes may accumulate, and your blood’s chemical makeup may get out of balance. Acute kidney failure can become chronic and your kidneys will stop working almost entirely or completely. This is called end-stage renal disease. If this happens, you will need to go on permanent dialysis (to filter your blood and remove toxins) or get a kidney transplant. Death.
986) Renal Vascular Thrombosis
(RVT) describes a condition in which thrombus forms in the renal veins or their branches. RVT is rare and occurs most commonly in adults with nephrotic syndrome and newborn infants with volume contraction or inherited thrombophilia. It is a blood clot that develops in the vein that drains blood from the kidney. The kidneys are responsible for removing wastes from the body, regulating electrolyte balance and blood pressure, and the stimulation of red blood cell production.
987) Renal Vasculitis
Also called ANCA glomerulonephritis, is an autoimmune disease that causes your white blood cells to attack the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels that filter blood in your kidneys. This causes swelling and damage to the capillaries (blood vessels). When symptoms do occur, they include abdominal pain, blood in your urine, and a rash on your buttocks or lower legs. Kidney specialists (nephrologists) at University of Miami Health System are experienced in diagnosing and treating renal vasculitis.
988) Renal Vein Embolism
(RVT) describes a condition in which thrombus forms in the renal veins or their branches. RVT is rare and occurs most commonly in adults with nephrotic syndrome and newborn infants with volume contraction or inherited thrombophilia. Acute renal vein thrombosis usually presents with symptoms of renal infarction, including flank pain, flank tenderness, rapid deterioration of renal function and worsening proteinuria, micro or macroscopic hematuria. Nausea, vomiting or fever may be present. Renal vein thrombosis is a blood clot that develops in the vein that drains blood from the kidney. The kidneys are responsible for removing wastes from the body, regulating electrolyte balance and blood pressure, and the stimulation of red blood cell production.
989) Renal Vein Thrombosis
(RVT) is the formation of a clot in the vein that drains blood from the kidneys, ultimately leading to a reduction in the drainage of one or both kidneys and the possible migration of the clot to other parts of the body. Acute renal vein thrombosis usually presents with symptoms of renal infarction, including flank pain, flank tenderness, rapid deterioration of renal function and worsening proteinuria, micro or macroscopic hematuria. Nausea, vomiting or fever may be present. Renal vein thrombosis is a blood clot that develops in the vein that drains blood from the kidney. The kidneys are responsible for removing wastes from the body, regulating electrolyte balance and blood pressure, and the stimulation of red blood cell production.
990) Respiratory Arrest
Definition of respiratory arrest: a state in which one stops breathing The hospital reported an increase in respiratory arrests. Signs of Respiratory Distress: Breathing rate. An increase in the number of breaths per minute may mean that a person is having trouble breathing or not getting enough oxygen. Color changes; Grunting; Nose flaring; Retractions; Sweating; Wheezing; Body position. Brain injury is likely if respiratory arrest goes untreated for more than three minutes, and death is almost certain if more than five minutes. Damage may be reversible if treated early enough. Respiratory arrest is a life-threatening medical emergency that requires immediate medical attention and management.
991) Respiratory Disorder
Or lung diseases, are disorders such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, emphysema, lung cancer, mesothelioma, pulmonary hypertension, and tuberculosis. If left untreated, lung disease can produce health complications, problematic symptoms, and life-threatening conditions. The Top 8 Respiratory Illnesses and Diseases: Asthma; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD); Chronic Bronchitis; Emphysema; Lung Cancer; Cystic Fibrosis/Bronchiectasis; Pneumonia; Pleural Effusion.
992) Respiratory Distress
Is a life-threatening condition where the lungs cannot provide the body’s vital organs with enough oxygen. It’s usually a complication of a serious existing health condition. This means most people are already in hospital by the time they develop ARDS. Signs of Respiratory Distress: Breathing rate. An increase in the number of breaths per minute may mean that a person is having trouble breathing or not getting enough oxygen; Color changes; Grunting; Nose flaring; Retractions; Sweating; Wheezing; Body position.
993) Respiratory Failure
It is a condition in which your blood doesn’t have enough oxygen or has too much carbon dioxide. Sometimes you can have both problems. When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen. The oxygen passes into your blood, which carries it to your organs. When a person has acute respiratory failure, the usual exchange between oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs does not occur. As a result, enough oxygen cannot reach the heart, brain, or the rest of the body. This can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, a bluish tint in the face and lips, and confusion.
994) Respiratory Paralysis
Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.
995) Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection: RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lung) and pneumonia (infection of the lungs) in children younger than 1 year of age in the United States. In rare cases, bronchiolitis can be accompanied by a bacterial lung infection called pneumonia. Pneumonia will need to be treated separately. Contact your GP immediately if any of these complications occur. In adults and older children, RSV usually causes mild cold-like signs and symptoms. These may include: Congested or runny nose. Dry cough.
996) Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchitis
RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lung) and pneumonia (infection of the lungs) in children younger than 1 year of age in the United States. Know the symptoms to look for and how to care for people with RSV. RSV can be dangerous for some infants and young children.
997) Retinal Artery Embolism
Ocular stroke commonly is caused by embolism of the retinal artery, although emboli may travel to distal branches of the retinal artery, causing loss of only a section of the visual field. Retinal artery occlusion represents an ophthalmologic emergency, and delay in treatment may result in permanent loss of vision. If you have only partial blurring or loss of eyesight, you likely have branch retinal artery occlusion. Symptoms of central retinal artery occlusion: Sudden blindness in one of your eyes; Sudden, complete blurring of eyesight in one eye; Steady loss of eyesight in one eye over a few weeks.
998) Retinal Artery Occlusion
Refers to blockage of the retinal artery carrying oxygen to the nerve cells in the retina at the back of the eye. The lack of oxygen delivery to the retina may result in severe loss of vision. An embolism is the most common cause of CRAO. The three main types of emboli are cholesterol, calcium, and platelet-fibrin. Symptoms of central retinal artery occlusion: Sudden blindness in one of your eyes; Sudden, complete blurring of eyesight in one eye; Steady loss of eyesight in one eye over a few weeks.
999) Retinal Artery Thrombosis
The central retinal artery is the first branch of the ophthalmic artery. It originates from the medial surface of the ophthalmic artery either in the optic canal, or after this vessel passes through the optic foramen and has entered the dural sheath of the optic nerve. The central retinal artery is typically the first branch of the ophthalmic artery. It runs along the inferior aspect of the optic nerve before piercing the optic nerve sheath 5–15 mm posterior to the globe. Entral retinal artery occlusion is the blockage of blood to the retina of one eye. It usually causes sudden loss of eyesight in one eye. You are higher risk if you are older or have high blood pressure, glaucoma, or diabetes.
1000) Retinal Vascular Thrombosis
Retinal vein occlusion happens when a blood clot blocks the vein. Sometimes it happens because the veins of the eye are too narrow. It is more likely to occur in people with diabetes, and possibly high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, or other health problems that affect blood flow. The primary symptom of retinal vascular occlusion is a sudden change in vision. This could include blurry vision, or a partial or complete loss of vision. The vision symptoms usually only occur in one eye. Physical pain is not a symptom of retinal vascular occlusion.
1001) Retinal Vasculitis
Retinal vasculitis is characterized by inflammation of the vessels of the retina . Retinal vasculitis can occur in association with an underlying infectious or systemic disease, as part of an ocular disease, or it can be idiopathic. The most common symptoms include blurred or decreased vision, floaters, and scotomata, although the disease may be asymptomatic. Causes of poor outcome of retinal vasculitis are multifactorial and prediction of visual acuity is difficult as the course of the disease may vary.
1002) Retinal Vein Occlusion
Is a blockage of the small veins that carry blood away from the retina. The retina is the layer of tissue at the back of the inner eye that converts light images to nerve signals and sends them to the brain. The symptoms of retinal vein occlusion range from subtle to very obvious. There is painless blurring or loss of vision. It almost always happens in just one eye. At first, the blurring or loss of vision might be slight, but it gets worse over the next few hours or days.
1003) Retinal Vein Thrombosis
Happens when a blood clot blocks the vein. Sometimes it happens because the veins of the eye are too narrow. It is more likely to occur in people with diabetes, and possibly high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, or other health problems that affect blood flow. A sudden change in a person’s vision or loss of vision in one eye is often the first symptom of an eye stroke. Vision loss can affect the entire eye, or be subtler than that. Some people experience a loss of peripheral vision only or have blind spots or “floaters.” Blurry or distorted vision is also possible.
1004) Retinol Binding Protein Decreased
The acute inflammatory response to tissue injury and infection is associated with low concentrations of plasma retinol and its specific transport proteins, retinol-binding protein (RBP) and transthyretin (TTR). Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a member of the lipocalin family and the major transport protein of the hydrophobic molecule retinol, also known as vitamin A, in the circulation. Expression of RBP4 is highest in the liver, where most of the body’s vitamin A reserves are stored as retinyl esters. Vitamin A deficiency is known to be associated with night blindness. Plasma retinol binding protein (RBP) estimation highly correlates with plasma retinol concentration to predict vitamin A status. Serum RBP estimation is reasonably simple, inexpensive, and highly applicable in less technologically developed settings.
Is any damage to the retina of the eyes, which may cause vision impairment. Retinopathy often refers to retinal vascular disease, or damage to the retina caused by abnormal blood flow. Retinopathy occurs when blood vessels in the back of the eye, the retina, become damaged. When the blood vessels become damaged they can leak and these leaks can cause dark spots on our vision. The main causes of retinopathy tend to be sustained high blood glucose levels and high blood pressure as well. Symptoms of diabetic retinopathy: gradually worsening vision; sudden vision loss; shapes floating in your field of vision (floaters); blurred or patchy vision; eye pain or redness; difficulty seeing in the dark.
1006) Retrograde Portal Vein Flow
Spontaneous reversal of portal vein flow in patients with cirrhosis can occur only when the hepatic outflow resistence exceeds the resistance through portal venous collaterals and probably represents an advanced stage of portal hypertension. When flow direction is normal in the portal vein (toward the liver), it is the same direction as the hepatic artery. The portal vein (PV) is the main vessel of the PVS, resulting from the confluence of the splenic and superior mesenteric veins, and drains directly into the liver, contributing to approximately 75% of its blood flow.
1007) Retroperitoneal Fibrosis
Is a disorder in which inflammation and extensive scar tissue (fibrosis) occur in the back of the abdominal cavity, behind (retro-) the membrane that surrounds the organs of the digestive system (the peritoneum). This area is known as the retroperitoneal space. Symptoms of retroperitoneal fibrosis: dull pain in the abdomen or back that may be hard to pinpoint, pain on one side between your upper abdomen and back, leg pain, discoloration in one or both legs, swelling of one leg, intense abdominal pain with bleeding or hemorrhaging.
1008) Reversible Airways Obstruction
Obstructionof the airway in asthma is generallyconsidered reversible, meaning that theobstruction of the lung can generally beresolved with treatment and in some casescan resolve spontaneously. Asthma. Asthma is marked by recurring episodes of reversible airway narrowing (caused by contraction of muscle in the airway wall, or “bronchospasm”) manifested by shortness of breath, cough, wheezing, and chest tightness.
1009) Reynold’s Syndrome
Raynaud’s (ray-NOSE) disease causes some areas of your body — such as your fingers and toes — to feel numb and cold in response to cold temperatures or stress. In Raynaud’s disease, smaller arteries that supply blood to your skin become narrow, limiting blood flow to affected areas (vasospasm). The exact cause of Raynaud’s is unknown. It is possible that some blood disorders may cause Raynaud’s by increasing the blood thickness. This may happen due to excess platelets or red blood cells. Or special receptors in the blood that control the narrowing of the blood vessels may be more sensitive.
1010) Rheumatic Brain Disease
In many cases of patients who had rheumatic fever–at times undiagnosed–there is a chronic involvement of the brain as a result of disseminated recurrent obliterating arteritis or emboli in the small blood vessels, especially in the brain membranes or the cortex. Many people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) report having trouble thinking clearly, problems with memory, and difficulty concentrating. These symptoms, known as brain fog, can occur in people with chronic inflammatory conditions, including RA, Sjogren’s syndrome, and multiple sclerosis.
1011) Rheumatic Disorder
Rheumatic diseases are autoimmune and inflammatory diseases that cause your immune system to attack your joints, muscles, bones and organs. Rheumatic diseases are often grouped under the term “arthritis” — which is used to describe over 100 diseases and conditions. Signs and Symptoms of Rheumatic Diseases: Joint Pain; Swelling of a joint or joints; Joint stiffness that lasts for at least one hour in the early morning; Chronic pain or tenderness in a joint or joints; Warmth or redness in a joint area; Limited movement in an affected joint or joints; Fatigue.
1012) Rheumatoid Arthritis
RA, is an autoimmune and inflammatory disease, which means that your immune system attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake, causing inflammation (painful swelling) in the affected parts of the body. RA mainly attacks the joints, usually many joints at once. The early warning signs of RA include: Fatigue. Before experiencing any other symptoms, a person with RA may feel extremely tired and lack energy. Slight fever. Inflammation associated with RA may cause people to feel unwell and feverish. Weight loss. Stiffness.Joint tenderness.Joint pain.Joint swelling. Joint redness. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune condition, which means it’s caused by the immune system attacking healthy body tissue. However, it’s not yet known what triggers this. Your immune system normally makes antibodies that attack bacteria and viruses, helping to fight infection.
1013) Rheumatoid Factor Increased
A higher level of rheumatoid factor in your blood is closely associated with autoimmune disease, particularly rheumatoid arthritis. But a number of other diseases and conditions can raise rheumatoid factor levels, including: Cancer. Chronic infections. The “normal” range (or negative test result) for rheumatoid factor is less than 14 IU/ml. Any result with values 14 IU/ml or above is considered abnormally high, elevated, or positive.
1014) Rheumatoid Factor Positive
A positive rheumatoid factor test result indicates that a high level of rheumatoid factor was detected in your blood. A higher level of rheumatoid factor in your blood is closely associated with autoimmune disease, particularly rheumatoid arthritis. High RF levels in the blood can indicate an autoimmune condition, such as rheumatoid arthritis. An RF test is a blood test that can help diagnose rheumatoid arthritis.
1015) Rheumatoid Factor Quantitative Increased
A positive rheumatoid factor test result indicates that a high level of rheumatoid factor was detected in your blood. A higher level of rheumatoid factor in your blood is closely associated with autoimmune disease, particularly rheumatoid arthritis.
1016) Rheumatoid Lung
Is a group of lung problems related to rheumatoid arthritis. The condition can include: Blockage of the small airways (bronchiolitis obliterans) Fluid in the chest (pleural effusions) High blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension). (RA) doesn’t affect just your joints. It can also damage the tissue surrounding the joints, as well as your eyes, heart, and, most important, lungs. Lung complications from rheumatoid arthritis can be serious and even cause death.
1017) Rheumatoid Neutrophilic Dermatosis
(RND) is a very rare cutaneous manifestation of severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It occurs more commonly in patients who have severe, long-lasting seropositive arthritis and clinically manifests as asymptomatic erythematous papules, nodules, plaques or urticaria-like lesions. Vesicles, blisters, ulcers and annular lesions are less frequent.
1018) Rheumatoid Nodule
Are well-demarcated, flesh colored, subcutaneous lumps or masses which are usually freely movable, though attachment to underlying tissues is possible. The nodules can vary in size from small, pea sized lesions up to the size of a lemon. Rheumatoid nodules are firm lumps that develop underneath the skin in some people who have RA. They do not change color or bleed and do not resemble other bumps on the skin, such as pimples. The lumps are usually not tender, though pain is possible in rare cases.
1019) Rheumatoid Nodule Removal
Sometimes injections of corticosteroids can reduce inflammation and treat the rheumatoid nodules. If this doesn’t work, your doctor may recommend surgically removing the nodule or nodules. But the nodules often return after surgical removal.
1020) Rheumatoid Scleritis
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) accounts for 8% to 15% of the cases of scleritis, and 2% of patients with RA will develop scleritis. These patients are more likely to present with diffuse or necrotizing forms of scleritis and have an increased risk of ocular complications and refractory scleral inflammation. Scleritis is often linked to autoimmune diseases. These diseases occur when the body’s immune system attacks and destroys healthy body tissue by mistake. Rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus are examples of autoimmune diseases.
1021) Rheumatoid Vasculitis
Is a condition that causes blood vessels to be inflamed. It happens in some people who have had rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for a long time. RA is an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease is caused by a problem with the immune system. The immune system’s job is to protect the body from disease. When rheumatoid arthritis affects the blood vessels and makes them inflamed, it’s a condition known as rheumatoid vasculitis. Rheumatoid vasculitis can be serious, and even life-threatening.
1022) Saccadic Eye Movement
Is a quick, simultaneous movement of both eyes between two or more phases of fixation in the same direction. In contrast, in smooth pursuit movements, the eyes move smoothly instead of in jumps. Saccadic intrusions or oscillations: These saccades occur when patients are fixating in the eye primary position, or they may be superimposed during smooth pursuit. Examples include square wave jerks, macrosaccadic oscillations and ocular flutter/opsoclonus.
1023) Sapho Syndrome
Synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome is a rare chronic inflammatory disorder of bone, joint, and skin characterized by synovitis, osteitis, hyperostosis, and enthesitis, typically with pain, swelling, and tenderness in affected areas.
Sarcoidosis is a rare condition that causes small patches of red and swollen tissue, called granulomas, to develop in the organs of the body. It usually affects the lungs and skin. The symptoms of sarcoidosis depend on which organs are affected, but typically include: tender, red bumps on the skin. shortness of breath. Untreated pulmonary sarcoidosis can lead to permanent scarring in your lungs (pulmonary fibrosis), making it difficult to breathe and sometimes causing pulmonary hypertension. Eyes. Inflammation can affect almost any part of your eye and may cause damage to the retina, which can eventually cause blindness.
1025) Satoyoshi Syndrome
Is a multisystemic rare disease of unknown etiology, although an autoimmune basis is presumed. Its main symptoms are: painful muscle spasms, diarrhea, alopecia and skeletal abnormalities. Clinical course without treatment may result in serious disability or death. Symptoms of Satoyoshi syndrome typically begin between the age of 6-15 years and include painful muscle spasms, loss of hair on the scalp and body (alopecia universalis), and gastrointestinal problems such as diarrhea. The muscle spasms may worsen if left untreated.
s a rare congenital (present from birth) brain malformation in which abnormal slits or clefts form in the cerebral hemispheres of the brain. The signs and symptoms of this condition may include developmental delay , seizures , and problems with brain-spinal cord communication. Signs and symptoms of schizencephaly may include: Developmental delay; Seizures;Abnormally small head ( microcephaly ); Intellectual disability; Partial or complete paralysis; Poor muscle tone ( hypotonia ); Hydrocephalus.
Is the inflammation in the episcleral and scleral tissues with injection in both superficial and deep episcleral vessels. It may involve the cornea, adjacent episclera and the uvea and thus can be vision-threatening. Scleritis is often associated with an underlying systemic disease in up to 50% of patients. Scleritis symptoms include: pain; tenderness of the eye; redness and swelling of the white part of the eye; blurred vision; tearing; extreme sensitivity to light.
Is a form of scleroderma which affects the fingers or the toes. The most classic symptom of scleroderma is a type of skin tightening called sclerodactyly. The initial stages of the disease involves swelling of the fingers. Later, as the connective tissue becomes fibrotic, skin on the fingers and toes becomes hard and shiny. As noted earlier, sclerodactyly is caused by systemic scleroderma, an autoimmune disease. When a person has an autoimmune disease, their immune system attacks healthy body tissue after mistaking it for foreign invaders, such as bacteria or viruses.
Is a long-lasting disease that affects your skin, connective tissue, and internal organs. It happens when your immune system causes your body to make too much of the protein collagen, an important part of your skin. As a result, your skin gets thick and tight, and scars can form on your lungs and kidneys. The first parts of the body to be affected are usually the fingers, hands, feet and face. In some people, the skin thickening can also involve the forearms, upper arms, chest, abdomen, lower legs and thighs. Early symptoms may include swelling and itchiness.
1030) Scleroderma Associated Digital Ulcer
Digital ulcers occur because of poor blood flow to the fingertips which is in turn related to the narrowing of blood vessels that is the hallmark of all forms of systemic scleroderma. from a patient with long-standing scleroderma. This is a cross-section of a finger artery from a patient with long-standing scleroderma.
1031) Scleroderma Renal Crisis
(SRC) is a major complication in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). It is characterized by malignant hypertension and oligo/anuric acute renal failure. SRC occurs in 5% of patients with SSc, particularly in the first years of disease evolution and in the diffuse form. (SRC) is an infrequent but serious complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc). It is associated with increased vascular permeability, activation of coagulation cascade, and renin secretion, which may lead to the acute renal failure typically associated with accelerated hypertension.
1032) Scleroderma-Like Reaction
Taxanes may occur in patients treated with docetaxel or paclitaxel, characterized by an acute, diffuse, infiltrated edema of the extremities and head. Damage to endothelium is an early abnormality in the development of scleroderma, and this, too, seems to be due to collagen accumulation by fibroblasts, although direct alterations by cytokines, platelet adhesion, and a type II hypersensitivity reaction similarly have been implicated.
1033) Secondary Amyloidosis
Is a disorder in which abnormal proteins build up in tissues and organs. Clumps of the abnormal proteins are called amyloid deposits. Secondary means it occurs because of another disease or situation. It frequently affects multiple organs, including the heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, nervous system, and GI tract. Signs and symptoms of amyloidosis include: Feeling very weak or tired; Losing weight without trying; Swelling in the belly, legs, ankles or feet; Numbness, pain or tingling in hands or feet; Skin that bruises easily; Purple spots (purpura) or bruised-looking areas of skin around the eyes.
1034) Secondary Cerebellar Degeneration
Is primarily characterized by a wide-legged, unsteady, lurching walk that is usually accompanied by a back and forth tremor in the trunk of the body. Other signs and symptoms may include slow, unsteady and jerky movement of the arms or legs; slowed and slurred speech; and nystagmus. The most characteristic symptom of cerebellar degeneration is a wide-based, unsteady, lurching walk, often accompanied by a back and forth tremor in the trunk of the body. Other symptoms may include slow, unsteady and jerky movement of the arms or legs, slowed and slurred speech, and nystagmus.
1035) Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis
(SPMS) is a stage of MS which comes after relapsing remitting MS for many people. With this type of MS your disability gets steadily worse. You’re no longer likely to have relapses, when your symptoms get worse but then get better. Symptoms: Fatigue; Numbness or tingling; Vision problems, such as double vision; Spasticity or stiffness of the muscles; Bowel and bladder problems, such as urgent need to urinate; Problems with cognition, such as learning and memory or information processing; Difficulty with walking and coordination.
Is a sudden, uncontrolled electrical disturbance in the brain. It can cause changes in your behavior, movements or feelings, and in levels of consciousness. Having two or more seizures at least 24 hours apart that aren’t brought on by an identifiable cause is generally considered to be epilepsy. Anything that interrupts the normal connections between nerve cells in the brain can cause a seizure. This includes a high fever, high or low blood sugar, alcohol or drug withdrawal, or a brain concussion. But when a person has 2 or more seizures with no known cause, this is diagnosed as epilepsy.
1037) Seizure Anoxic
Are nonepileptic events consequent upon abrupt interruption of the energy supply to metabolically active cerebral neurones. Anoxic seizures are the most common paroxysmal events misdiagnosed as epilepsy. Neurally mediated syncopes have numerous appellations, especially in the young. Any unexpected pain, fear, fright or surprise can trigger an attack. During the RAS the heart stops, and typically the eyes roll, there is a deathly pallor (paleness) and clenching of the jaw. The body can stiffen, breathing becomes shallow or stops, and there may be jerking movements of the arms and legs.
1038) Seizure Cluster
Seizure clusters are periods of increased seizure activity, which is having two or more seizures in a 24-hour period. They are disruptive events that can leave you feeling worried, frustrated, or helpless. Clusters may happen rarely or may occur frequently. Patients and caregivers may recognize triggers for clusters: sleep deprivation, stress, missing medications, illness with fever, using alcohol or other nonmedical drugs. There is no identifiable trigger in about 30% of people. And for some, one seizure can spiral into another for a prolonged period, called cluster seizures. Left untreated, these episodes can cause neurological complications and brain damage.
1039) Seizure Like Phenomena
(SLP) have been reported in neonates through patients in their eighties (5). The term SLP is used to describe the generalized myoclonus associated with propofol because simultaneous EEG recordings of cortical epileptic activity have not been documented.
1040) Seizure Prophylaxis
Measures taken to prevent a seizure – an episode of abnormal electrical activity in the brain where a person’s body may shake rapidly and uncontrollably.
1041) Sensation Of Foreign Body
Feeling of grittiness or having something in the eye; frequently caused by a foreign body. Other possible causes include corneal abrasion, corneal ulcer, inturned eye lash or acute conjunctivitis. What Causes Foreign Body Sensation? The most common cause of foreign body sensation is extraesophageal reflux, also called laryngopharyngeal reflux. This is the cause in over 90% of cases. Most of the time this will be the only symptom with no actual heartburn or discomfort.
1042) Septic Embolus
Septic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon disease in which septic thrombi are mobilised from an infectious nidus and transported in the vascular system of the lungs. It is usually associated with tricuspid valve vegetation, septic thrombophlebitis or infected venous catheters. The symptoms of septic emboli are similar to nonspecific signs of infection, such as: fatigue; fever; chills; lightheadedness; dizziness; sore throat; persistent cough; inflammation.
1043) Septic Pulmonary Embolism
(SPE) is an uncommon disorder in which a microorganism-containing thrombus causes an inflammatory reaction and a mechanical obstruction in the pulmonary vasculature 1,2. Septic emboli originate from a source of infection that becomes complicated with bloodstream infection. A large bacterial inoculum forms on the vulnerable vascular territory, e.g., vegetations on a heart valve or a pacemaker lead or a thrombus in an indwelling vascular catheter or graft.
1044) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
An infectious disease with symptoms including fever and cough and in some cases progressing to pneumonia and respiratory failure. It is caused by a coronavirus.Symptoms of SARS · a high temperature (fever) · extreme tiredness (fatigue) · headaches · chills · muscle pain · loss of appetite · diarrhoea.
1045) Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy Of Infancy
(SMEI, or Dravet syndrome) is a drug-resistant epilepsy that occurs in the first year of life of previously healthy children. The main clinical features are prolonged and repeated febrile and afebrile generalized or unilateral convulsive seizures. Myoclonic seizures are a symptom found in a number of progressive seizure disorders. They are typically rare. Some, like EPM1, cause severe symptoms in childhood but overall life expectancy is normal. Others, such as Lafora disease, will prove fatal within 10 years.
Is a critical condition brought on by the sudden drop in blood flow through the body. Shock may result from trauma, heatstroke, blood loss, an allergic reaction, severe infection, poisoning, severe burns or other causes. When a person is in shock, his or her organs aren’t getting enough blood or oxygen. The main symptom of shock is low blood pressure. Other symptoms include rapid, shallow breathing; cold, clammy skin; rapid, weak pulse; dizziness, fainting, or weakness.
1047) Shock Symptom
The main symptom of shock is low blood pressure. Other symptoms include rapid, shallow breathing; cold, clammy skin; rapid, weak pulse; dizziness, fainting, or weakness.
1048) Shrinking Lung Syndrome
(SLS) is a rare pulmonary complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is characterized by progressive dyspnea, elevation of diaphragm, pleuritic chest pain, decreased lung volumes on imaging. Shrinking lung syndrome (SLS) is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), characterized by dyspnea on exertion, orthopnea, pleuritic chest pain, restrictive ventilatory defect, elevation of both hemidiaphragms, normal lung parenchyma and impaired diaphragmatic strength or activation.
1049) Shunt Thrombosis
Is the most frequent complication of dialysis shunts in haemodialysis patients. Morphological reasons are the main causes of shunt occlusion. A critical evaluation of this aspect is presented on the basis of our own experience. In-hospital shunt thrombosis was defined by the presence of one of the following conditions: non-pulmonary cause of acute hypoxemia, reappearance of cyanosis with decreased oxygen tension or loss of shunt murmur combined with no shunt flow assessed from echocardiography or angiography.
1050) Silent Thyroiditis
Is an immune reaction of the thyroid gland. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism, followed by hypothyroidism. The thyroid gland is located in the neck, just above where your collarbones meet in the middle. Silent thyroiditis or painless thyroiditis: another autoimmune disease caused by anti-thyroid antibodies. It is also common in women and the next common cause after Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Symptoms: Fatigue, feeling weak; Frequent bowel movements; Heat intolerance; Increased appetite; Increased sweating; Irregular menstrual periods; Mood changes, such as irritability; Muscle cramps.
1051) Simple Partial Seizures
A partial (focal) seizure happens when unusual electrical activity affects a small area of the brain. When the seizure does not affect awareness, it is known as a simple partial seizure. Simple partial seizures can be: Motor – affecting the muscles of the body. A simple partial seizure can cause: a general strange feeling that’s hard to describe. a “rising” feeling in your tummy – like the sensation in your stomach when on a fairground ride. a feeling that events have happened before (déjà vu). Focal Onset Aware Seizures (simple partial seizures) A seizure that starts in one area of the brain and the person remains alert and able to interact is called a focal onset aware seizure. This term replaces simple partial seizure. These seizures are brief, lasting seconds to less than 2 minutes.
1052) Sjogren’s Syndrome
Sjogren’s (SHOW-grins) syndrome is a disorder of your immune system identified by its two most common symptoms — dry eyes and a dry mouth. Sjogren’s (SHOW-grins) syndrome is a disorder of your immune system identified by its two most common symptoms — dry eyes and a dry mouth. The condition often accompanies other immune system disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. The hallmark symptoms of the disorder are dry mouth and dry eyes. In addition, Sjogren’s syndrome may cause skin, nose, and vaginal dryness, and may affect other organs of the body including the kidneys, blood vessels, lungs, liver, pancreas, and brain.
1053) Skin Swelling
Skin inflammation is a sign of an immune response in the body. Symptoms can include redness, heat, itching, sensitivity, and swelling. The cause or trigger of skin inflammation may be acute, such as a skin infection, or chronic, such as an autoimmune condition like psoriasis.
1054) Sle Arthritis
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), is the most common type of lupus. SLE is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks its own tissues, causing widespread inflammation and tissue damage in the affected organs. It can affect the joints, skin, brain, lungs, kidneys, and blood vessels. Symptoms of Lupus: Achy joints (arthralgia); Fever higher than 100 F; Swollen joints (arthritis); Constant or severe fatigue; Skin rash; Ankle swelling; Pain in your chest when breathing deeply (pleurisy); A butterfly-shaped rash across your cheeks and nose (malar rash)
1055) Smooth Muscle Antibody Positive
If your results show a high amount of SMA antibodies, it probably means you have the type 1 form of autoimmune hepatitis. A lower amount may mean you have the type 2 form of the disease. If no SMAs were found, it means your liver symptoms are being caused by something different than autoimmune hepatitis.
Is caused by irritation to the mucous membranes of the nose or throat. It can be very bothersome, but is rarely a sign of a serious problem. Sneezing can be due to: Allergy to pollen (hay fever), mold, dander, dust. Breathing in corticosteroids (from certain nose sprays). If you do notice you sneeze more frequently, you may have an allergy that you are unaware of or inflammation of the nasal cavity called chronic rhinitis. It doesn’t hurt to talk to your doctor about your sneezing habits if you think they are abnormal.
1057) Spinal Artery Embolism
Background: Fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) is a rare cause of spinal cord infarction. Most spinal cord infarctions are due to aortic pathologies and aortic surgeries. One theory is that material from the intervertebral discs follows a retrograde route to the anterior spinal artery.
1058) Spinal Artery Thrombosis
In human anatomy, the anterior spinal artery is the artery that supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord. It arises from branches of the vertebral arteries and courses along the anterior aspect of the spinal cord. It is reinforced by several contributory arteries, especially the artery of Adamkiewicz. (AST) results in sudden, often irreversible sensory and motor loss, with partial or complete paraplegia. This is recognized as a complication of: prothrombotic states; right to left shunting; trauma and spinal surgery. Thrombosis occurs when blood clots block veins or arteries. Symptoms include pain and swelling in one leg, chest pain, or numbness on one side of the body. Complications of thrombosis can be life-threatening, such as a stroke or heart attack.
1059) Splenic Artery Thrombosis
Splenic infarction refers to occlusion of the splenic vascular supply, leading to parenchymal ischemia and subsequent tissue necrosis. The classic splenic infarction presents with acute pain and tenderness in the left upper quadrant or flank area. Thrombosis occurs when blood clots block veins or arteries. Symptoms include pain and swelling in one leg, chest pain, or numbness on one side of the body. Complications of thrombosis can be life-threatening, such as a stroke or heart attack.
1060) Splenic Embolism
Is an endovascular technique for treatment of splenic and splenic artery pathology as an alternative to splenic artery ligation or splenectomy. It often results in successfully treating the underlying pathology, while maintaining at least partial splenic function. Postembolization syndrome of fever, left upper abdominal pain, nausea, and anorexia are extremely common after splenic artery embolization. All patients should be given patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for pain control.
1061) Splenic Thrombosis
Is an uncommon condition in which the splenic vein becomes thrombosed, that most frequently occurs in the context of pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. Computed tomography (CT) is the diagnostic method of choice in splanchnic vein thrombosis. In cases of right upper quadrant abdominal pain, the first study to perform is typically a Doppler ultrasound. Doppler ultrasound is less costly and more comfortable to achieve than CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
1062) Splenic Vein Thrombosis
Is an uncommon condition in which the splenic vein becomes thrombosed, that most frequently occurs in the context of pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. The most common cause of isolated thrombosis of the splenic vein is chronic pancreatitis caused by perivenous inflammation. Although splenic vein thrombosis (SVT) has been reported in up to 45% of patients with chronic pancreatitis, most patients with SVT remain asymptomatic. The most common symptom is abdominal pain, reported in approximately half of SVT patients, followed by gastrointestinal bleeding and ascites. Other nonspecific symptoms are nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhoea or constipation, and fever.
Means inflammation in your spinal bones, or vertebrae. Severe cases can leave your spine hunched. There’s no cure for AS. But medication and exercise can ease pain and help keep your back strong. Ankylosing spondylitis has no known specific cause, though genetic factors seem to be involved. In particular, people who have a gene called HLA-B27 are at a greatly increased risk of developing ankylosing spondylitis. However, only some people with the gene develop the condition. The symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis (AS): Lower back pain and stiffness; Hip pain; Joint pain; Neck pain; Difficulty breathing; Fatigue; Loss of appetite and unexplained weight loss; Abdominal pain and diarrhea.
Are forms of arthritis that usually strike the bones in your spine and nearby joints. They can cause pain and sometimes damage joints like your backbone, shoulders, and hips. Arthritis causes inflammation (swelling, redness and pain) in your body’s joints. It’s common in people as they get older. Spondyloarthritis is currently allocated to the autoimmune diseases, but classifies as an autoinflammatory disease based on a strong inflammatory component and lack of a female preponderance. Spondyloarthritis is a major cause of lower back pain, arthritis in the peripheral joints such as those in arms and legs, eye problems, and even inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
1065) Spontaneous Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Syndrome
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a transient, autoimmune-like, prothrombotic disorder caused by platelet-activating immunoglobulin (Ig)G reactive against the self-protein, platelet factor 4 (PF4), bound to heparin. Symptoms of HIT: Skin tenderness; Swelling; Skin that’s warm to the touch; Shortness of breath; Change in heart rate; Sharp pain in your chest; Dizziness; Anxiety.
1066) Status Epilepticus
A seizure that lasts longer than 5 minutes, or having more than 1 seizure within a 5 minutes period, without returning to a normal level of consciousness between episodes is called status epilepticus. This is a medical emergency that may lead to permanent brain damage or death. Symptoms of status epilepticus may include: Persistent shaking or jerking of the body lasting for longer than five minutes. Falling to the ground and remaining unresponsive. Lack of alertness for longer than five minutes. Human status epilepticus (SE) is consistently associated with cognitive problems, and with widespread neuronal necrosis in hippocampus and other brain regions. In animal models, convulsive SE causes extensive neuronal necrosis.
1067) Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
(SJS) is a rare, serious disorder of the skin and mucous membranes. It’s usually a reaction to medication that starts with flu-like symptoms, followed by a painful rash that spreads and blisters. Then the top layer of affected skin dies, sheds and begins to heal after several days. Stevens-Johnson syndrome is usually caused by an unpredictable adverse reaction to certain medications. It can also sometimes be caused by an infection. The syndrome often begins with flu-like symptoms, followed by a red or purple rash that spreads and forms blisters. The affected skin eventually dies and peels off.The beginning stages of SJS are somewhat hard to spot as they resemble those of the flu, with a temperature, sore throat and fatigue. Within 1-3 days of this, the mucous membranes in the digestive tract, the genitals and the eye sockets, become inflamed and ulcers or blisters begin to form.
1068) Stiff Leg Syndrome
Is characterized by the localized involvement of one limb, usually a leg. The stiffness and muscle spasms are extremely similar to those found in classic stiff-person syndrome. Stiff-limb syndrome may progress to eventually affect both legs and may cause difficulty walking. The main symptoms of Stiff Person Syndrome are muscle stiffening in the torso and limbs, along with episodes of violent muscle spasms. These can be triggered by environmental stimuli (like loud noises) or emotional stress. The muscle spasms can be so severe that they cause the person to fall down.
1069) Stiff Person Syndrome
(SPS) is a rare acquired neurological disorder characterized by progressive muscle stiffness (rigidity) and repeated episodes of painful muscle spasms. Muscular rigidity often fluctuates (i.e., grows worse and then improves) and usually occurs along with the muscle spasms. In most people with stiff person syndrome, the trunk and abdomen muscles are the first to become stiff and enlarged. Symptoms include pain, muscle stiffness and aching discomfort. Early on, stiffness may come and go but eventually the stiffness remains constant.
A stillbirth is the death or loss of a baby before or during delivery. Both miscarriage and stillbirth describe pregnancy loss, but they differ according to when the loss occurs. The symptoms of stillbirth: Stopping of fetal movement and kicks; Spotting or bleeding; No fetal heartbeat heard with stethoscope or Doppler; No fetal movement or heartbeat seen on ultrasound, which makes the definitive diagnosis that a baby is stillborn. Other symptoms may or may not be linked to stillbirth.
1071) Still’s Disease
Adult Still’s disease is a rare type of inflammatory arthritis that features fevers, rash and joint pain. Some people have just one episode of adult Still’s disease. In other people, the condition persists or recurs. This inflammation can destroy affected joints, particularly the wrists. The cause of AOSD is unknown (idiopathic). Researchers believe that the disorder might be caused by a combination of genetic factors and an abnormal or exaggerated response to infections or other environmental exposures. AOSD is not a hereditary disease and usually does not run in families.
1072) Stoma Site Thrombosis
The stoma, ileostomy traditionally on the right and colostomy on the left, is placed in the center of this triangle, through the rectus muscle slightly below the umbilicus. The site should be 5 cm away from skin folds, prior scars or bony prominences, and the patient’s belt line. Thrombosis occurs when blood clots block veins or arteries. Symptoms include pain and swelling in one leg, chest pain, or numbness on one side of the body. Complications of thrombosis can be life-threatening, such as a stroke or heart attack.
1073) Stoma Site Vasculitis
The stoma, ileostomy traditionally on the right and colostomy on the left, is placed in the center of this triangle, through the rectus muscle slightly below the umbilicus. The site should be 5 cm away from skin folds, prior scars or bony prominences, and the patient’s belt line. Vasculitis means inflammation of the blood vessels. This may be triggered by an infection or a medicine, although often the cause is unknown. Vasculitis can range from a minor problem that just affects the skin, to a more serious illness that causes problems with organs like the heart or kidneys.
1074) Stress Cardiomyopathy
Is a condition caused by intense emotional or physical stress leading to rapid and severe reversible cardiac dysfunction. Signs and symptoms of cardiomyopathy include: Shortness of breath or trouble breathing, especially with physical exertion; Fatigue; Swelling in the ankles, feet, legs, abdomen and veins in the neck; Dizziness; Lightheadedness; Fainting during physical activity; Arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats). Anxiety, sweating (diaphoresis), nausea, vomiting, palpitations, and transient loss of consciousness (syncope) can also occur. Most individuals that develop takotsubo cardiomyopathy fully recover within one month, and recurrence is rare. However, complications occur in about 20% of patients.
Is noisy breathing that occurs due to obstructed air flow through a narrowed airway. Stridor breathing is not in and of itself a diagnosis, but rather is a symptom or sign that points to a specific airway disorder. Some common causes of stridor in children are infections and defects in the child’s nose, throat, larynx, or trachea that the child was born with. Stridor is a high-pitched sound heard best when your child is breathing in (inhaling). It can also be heard when your child is breathing out (exhaling). Noisy breathing, or stridor, is most often a symptom of a throat or airway problem.
1076) Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus
(SCLE) causes skin sores or rashes. It is an autoimmune disorder, meaning it occurs when your immune system attacks itself. Some prescription drugs may increase your risk for SCLE. There is no cure for SCLE. Treatment can help you manage symptoms and avoid SCLE rash flare-ups. Subacute lupus most often presents with a red, raised, scaly rash on sun-exposed areas of the body. It tends to have circular skin lesions or lesions that can look like psoriasis on sun-exposed skin. Discoid lupus starts out as a red to purple scaly rash on the scalp, face, ears, and other sun-exposed areas.
1077) Subacute Endocarditis
Is a type of infective endocarditis. It’s an infection that occurs when germs such as bacteria enter the bloodstream and attack the lining of the heart valves. This causes growths, called vegetations, on the heart valves. Subacute bacterial endocarditis is usually caused by streptococcal bacteria. This form of the disease usually develops on damaged valves after dental surgery involving infected gums, reproductive or urinary (genitourinary tract) surgery or operations on the gastrointestinal tract. Common signs and symptoms of endocarditis include: Aching joints and muscles; Chest pain when you breathe; Fatigue; Flu-like symptoms, such as fever and chills; Night sweats; Shortness of breath; Swelling in your feet, legs or abdomen.
1078) Subacute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy
(SIDP) is a subacute progressive symmetric sensorial and/or motor disorder characterized by muscular weakness with impaired sensation, absent or diminished tendon reflexes and elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins. You may recover entirely from CIDP. Some people do, but they may have symptoms from nerve damage, such as numbness and weakness, for the rest of their lives.
1079) Subclavian Artery Embolism
Is a common condition that is felt to be underdiagnosed. It involved obstruction of blood flow through the subclavian artery and is four times more common in the left subclavian artery than the right.
1080) Subclavian Artery Thrombosis
Is a condition in which the blood flow through the subclavian artery is obstructed. The occlusion typically arises secondary to damage to the intima of the vessel. The symptoms that do occur are tied to the area that is blocked. You may experience arm pain or muscle fatigue when using your arms above your head, or doing any activity that demands more oxygen-rich blood flow to the arms. Other symptoms can include: Dizziness (vertigo) with arm activity.
1081) Subclavian Vein Thrombosis
(SCVT) is a condition where a blood clot forms in the subclavian vein. SCVT can occur from multiple etiologies and is a potentially life-threatening pathology if not treated in a timely manner. This tissue causes the vein to narrow and restrict blood flow, leading to the formation of blood clots. Left untreated, axillo-subclavian vein thrombosis can cause: Arm pain and fatigue. Arm swelling.
1082) Sudden Unexplained Death In Epilepsy
SUDEP refers to deaths in people with epilepsy that are not caused by injury, drowning, or other known causes. Studies suggest that each year there are about 1.16 cases of SUDEP for every 1,000 people with epilepsy, although estimates vary. Most, but not all, cases of SUDEP occur during or immediately after a seizure.
1083) Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis
Background Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis is an uncommon cerebrovascular accident that is frequently associated with diseases that may contribute to the development of thrombosis through hypercoagulability, stasis of the local blood stream, and abnormalities of the vessel wall. Although superior sagittal sinus thrombosis is the most common form of venous sinus thrombosis and is frequently associated with the use of oral contraceptives, septic sagittal sinus thrombosis is an uncommon condition that occurs as a consequence of purulent meningitis, infections of the ethmoid or maxillary sinuses spreading through venous channels, compound infected skull fractures, or (rarely) neurosurgical wound infections.
1084) Susac’s Syndrome
Is an autoimmune endotheliopathy, a disorder in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the inside lining (endothelium) of the walls of the very tiny blood vessels that supply blood to the brain, retina, and inner ear. The exact, underlying reason why this occurs is unknown. The symptoms of Susac syndrome: Severe headache, often with vomiting; Confusion; Problems with thinking, such as short-term memory loss, slow thought processing and reduced ability to solve problems; Slurred speech; Walking difficulties; Changes in personality.
Is the enlargement of organs, skin, or other body parts. It is caused by a buildup of fluid in the tissues. The extra fluid can lead to a rapid increase in weight over a short period of time (days to weeks). Swelling can occur all over the body (generalized) or only in one part of the body (localized). Swelling is the result of the increased movement of fluid and white blood cells into the injured area. The release of chemicals and the compression of nerves in the area of injury cause pain. You should seek emergency care if you have sudden, unexplained swelling in just one limb or if it occurs along with chest pain, trouble breathing, coughing up blood, fever, or skin that is red and warm to the touch.
1086) Swelling Face
Is a common symptom with a range of possible causes, including injuries, allergic reactions, and infections. Rarely, facial swelling can be a sign of anaphylaxis, which is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. Common causes of facial swelling include: allergic reaction; eye infection, such as allergic conjunctivitis; surgery; side effect of medication; cellulitis, a bacterial infection of the skin; sinusitis; hormonal disturbance, such as thyroid diseases; stye.
1087) Swelling Of Eyelid
Is usually a symptom, not a condition. It’s very common and is usually due to allergy, inflammation, infection, or injury. The skin of your eyelid is less than 1 millimeter thick. But, since the tissue is loose and stretchy, your eyelid is capable of swelling considerably.
1088) Swollen Tongue
Swelling, or enlargement, of the tongue. A swollen tongue can be a symptom of glossitis, an inflammation of the tongue that can be caused by infections, local irritation or burns, and allergic reactions. Swelling of the tongue can also result from trauma or rare diseases, such as amyloidosis. The causes of a swollen tongue are many and may include allergies, infections, trauma, GERD, oral lichen planus, drug reactions, autoimmune diseases, or rare disorders such as Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. An enlarged or swollen tongue can also occur as an allergic reaction to medications or other substances. In this case, the swelling is due to fluid accumulation in the tissues of the tongue, medically known as angioedema. A dramatically swollen tongue can lead to breathing problems and may be a medical emergency.
1089) Sympathetic Ophthalmia
Is a rare, bilateral granulomatous uveitis that occurs after either surgical or accidental trauma to one eye. The ocular inflammation in the fellow eye becomes apparent usually within 3 months after injury. Sympathetic ophthalmia (SO) also known as “sympathetic ophthalmitis” or “sympathetic uveitis” is a rare inflammatory condition caused by a delayed hypersensitivity reaction.
1090) Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
(SLE), is the most common type of lupus. SLE is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks its own tissues, causing widespread inflammation and tissue damage in the affected organs. It can affect the joints, skin, brain, lungs, kidneys, and blood vessels. Common symptoms include: severe fatigue; joint pain; joint swelling; headaches; a rash on the cheeks and nose, which is called a “butterfly rash”; hair loss; anemia; blood-clotting problems.
1091) Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index Abnormal
Systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index and its versions. The SLEDAI is a global index that was developed and introduced in 1985 as a clinical index for the assessment of lupus disease activity in the preceding 10 days. It consists of 24 weighted clinical and laboratory variables of nine organ systems. NIH Lupus Nephritis Activity and Chronicity Indices: A way to monitor response to treatment and disease progression. A semi-quantitative grading system of pathologic features on kidney biopsies allows for monitoring response to treatment and showing disease progression.
1092) Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index Decreased
Systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index and its versions. The SLEDAI is a global index that was developed and introduced in 1985 as a clinical index for the assessment of lupus disease activity in the preceding 10 days. It consists of 24 weighted clinical and laboratory variables of nine organ systems. NIH Lupus Nephritis Activity and Chronicity Indices: A way to monitor response to treatment and disease progression. A semi-quantitative grading system of pathologic features on kidney biopsies allows for monitoring response to treatment and showing disease progression.
1093) Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index Increased
Systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index and its versions. The SLEDAI is a global index that was developed and introduced in 1985 as a clinical index for the assessment of lupus disease activity in the preceding 10 days. It consists of 24 weighted clinical and laboratory variables of nine organ systems. NIH Lupus Nephritis Activity and Chronicity Indices: A way to monitor response to treatment and disease progression. A semi-quantitative grading system of pathologic features on kidney biopsies allows for monitoring response to treatment and showing disease progression.
1094) Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Rash
A typical sign of lupus is a red, butterfly-shaped rash over your cheeks and nose, often following exposure to sunlight. No two cases of lupus are exactly alike. Signs and symptoms may come on suddenly or develop slowly, may be mild or severe, and may be temporary or permanent. Many people with lupus experience a red or purplish rash that extends from the bridge of the nose over to the cheeks in a shape that resembles that of a butterfly. The rash may be smooth, or it may have a scaly or bumpy texture. It can look like a sunburn. The medical term for this type of rash is a malar rash. A lupus rash can appear in the following ways: A scaly, butterfly-shaped rash that covers both your cheeks and the bridge of your nose, This rash will not leave any scarring in its wake, but you may notice some skin discoloration such as dark or light-colored areas. Red, ring-shaped lesions that do not itch or scar.
1095) Systemic Scleroderma
Is an autoimmune disorder that affects the skin and internal organs . It is characterized by the buildup of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the skin and other organs. The fibrosis is caused by the body’s production of too much collagen, which normally strengthens and supports connective tissues. Systemic scleroderma is very unpredictable although most cases can be classified into one of four different general patterns of disease (see Classification). The first parts of the body to be affected are usually the fingers, hands, feet and face. In some people, the skin thickening can also involve the forearms, upper arms, chest, abdomen, lower legs and thighs. Early symptoms may include swelling and itchiness.
1096) Systemic Sclerosis Pulmonary
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic autoimmune disease that is characterised by endothelial dysfunction resulting in a small-vessel vasculopathy, fibroblast dysfunction with resultant excessive collagen production and fibrosis, and immunological abnormalities. Pulmonary manifestations of SSc include, but are not limited to, pulmonary vascular diseases such as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD), interstitial lung disease (ILD), and increased susceptibility to lung neoplasms.
Is the medical term for a heart rate over 100 beats a minute. Many types of irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias) can cause tachycardia. A fast heart rate isn’t always a concern. For instance, the heart rate typically rises during exercise or as a response to stress. Tachycardia refers to a heart rate that’s too fast. Symptoms and complications: Fainting (syncope); Lightheadedness or dizziness; Rapid heartbeat or palpitations; Fluttering in the chest; Bounding pulse; Chest pressure, tightness or pain (angina); Shortness of breath; Fatigue.
These conditions include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis, collapsed lung, pulmonary embolism, and more. Heart-related conditions: Conditions such as heart failure, anemia, or underactive thyroid can result in cardiovascular changes that can cause tachypnea. The body tries to correct this by breathing more quickly. Certain illnesses affecting the lungs can reduce oxygen levels in the blood or raise the level of carbon dioxide, causing tachypnea. These conditions include: asthma.
1099) Takayasu’s Arteritis
Is a rare type of vasculitis, a group of disorders that causes blood vessel inflammation. In Takayasu’s arteritis, the inflammation damages the large artery that carries blood from your heart to the rest of your body (aorta) and its main branches. Symptoms: Weakness or pain in your limbs with use. A weak pulse, difficulty getting a blood pressure or a difference in blood pressure between your arms. Lightheadedness, dizziness or fainting. Headaches or visual changes.
1100) Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
(TLE) is a chronic disorder of the nervous system which is characterized by recurrent, unprovoked focal seizures that originate in the temporal lobe of the brain and last about one or two minutes. TLE is the most common form of epilepsy with focal seizures. The symptoms of temporal lobe epilepsy; Déjà vu (a feeling of familiarity), a memory or jamais vu (a feeling of unfamiliarity); A sudden sense of fear, panic or anxiety; anger, sadness or joy; A rising sick feeling in your stomach (the feeling you get in your gut riding a roller coaster). If temporal lobe epilepsy goes untreated: Seizures, especially ones that start in the temporal lobe, can cause a major blow to the hippocampus. The hippocampus is very sensitive to changes in brain activity. If seizures starting here go untreated, the hippocampus starts to harden and shrink. It is as if the librarian has gone on strike.
1101) Terminal Ileitis
Is an inflammatory condition of the terminal portion of the ileum that may occur acutely with right lower quadrant pain followed or not by diarrhea, or exhibit chronic obstructive symptoms and bleeding. Ileitis, or inflammation of the ileum, is often caused by Crohn’s disease. However, ileitis may be caused by a wide variety of other diseases. These include infectious diseases, spondyloarthropathies, vasculitides, ischemia, neoplasms, medication-induced, eosinophilic enteritis, and others. The main symptoms are abdominal pain and diarrhea. EG may reach the stomach and small intestine, and sometimes the colon. Patients with small-bowel EG may have abdominal pain, diarrhea, or malabsorption and ileal strictures and bowel obstruction may be observed with muscle layer involvement.
1102) Testicular Autoimmunity
Although the testis is an immunoprivileged organ, infection and inflammation may overwhelm immunosuppressor mechanisms inducing autoimmune reactions against spermatic antigens which result in aspermatogenesis and infertility. Common Symptoms: Swollen testicles (one or both), mild-to-severe testicular pain, fever, nausea and vomiting, general malaise, infertility, scrotal pain, and urinary tract infection symptoms.
1103) Throat Tightness
The cause of the tightness can vary from an infection like strep throat to a more serious allergic reaction. If you have other warning signs, like trouble swallowing or breathing, throat tightness is an emergency that needs to be treated immediately. Tightness in your throat can take many forms. Throat tension is a common anxiety symptom. People may feel as though: there is a tight band around the throat.
1104) Thromboangiitis Obliterans
Is a smoking-related condition that results in blood clot formation (thrombosis) in small and medium-sized arteries, and less commonly veins. The affected areas are most commonly the hands and feet. Thromboangiitis obliterans is also known as Buerger disease. Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger disease) is caused by small blood vessels that become inflamed and swollen. The blood vessels then narrow or get blocked by blood clots (thrombosis). Blood vessels of the hands and feet are mostly affected.
Is a condition in which you have a low blood platelet count. Platelets (thrombocytes) are colorless blood cells that help blood clot. Platelets stop bleeding by clumping and forming plugs in blood vessel injuries. If you have thrombocytopenia, you don’t have enough platelets in your blood. Platelets help your blood clot, which stops bleeding. For most people, it’s not a big problem. But if you have a severe form, you can bleed spontaneously in your eyes, gums, or bladder or bleed too much when you’re injured. The symptoms of a low platelet count: red, purple, or brown bruises, called purpura; a rash with small red or purple dots, called petechiae; nosebleeds; bleeding gums; bleeding from wounds that lasts for a prolonged period or doesn’t stop on its own; heavy menstrual bleeding.
1106) Thrombocytopenic Purpura
Is a blood disorder characterized by an abnormal decrease in the number of platelets in the blood. A decrease in platelets can result in easy bruising, bleeding gums, and internal bleeding. ITP may be acute and resolve in less than 6 months, or chronic and last longer than 6 months. Immune thrombocytopenia usually happens when your immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys platelets, which are cell fragments that help blood clot. In adults, this may be triggered by infection with HIV , hepatitis or H. pylori — the type of bacteria that causes stomach ulcers.
Is an inflammatory process that causes a blood clot to form and block one or more veins, usually in the legs. The affected vein might be near the surface of the skin (superficial thrombophlebitis) or deep within a muscle (deep vein thrombosis, or DVT). If the blood flow to one of your veins is slowed because of a clot, you might have: Red, swollen, and irritated skin around the affected area. Pain or tenderness that gets worse when you put pressure on the affected area.
1108) Thrombophlebitis Migrans
Is an inflammatory reaction of the vein accompanied by a thrombus. It is characterized by the involvement of one vein group first, then improving and followed by the involvement of other vein groups. Also called Trousseau’s syndrome or thrombophlebitis migrans, it’s when the clot comes back in a different part of your body. It often goes from one leg to the other. It’s often linked to cancer, especially of the pancreas or lung.
1109) Thrombophlebitis Neonatal
Thrombophlebitis (throm-boe-fluh-BY-tis) is an inflammatory process that causes a blood clot to form and block one or more veins, usually in the legs. The affected vein might be near the surface of the skin (superficial thrombophlebitis) or deep within a muscle (deep vein thrombosis, or DVT).If the blood flow to one of your veins is slowed because of a clot, you might have: Red, swollen, and irritated skin around the affected area. Pain or tenderness that gets worse when you put pressure on the affected area. More than 80 per cent of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in newborns is secondary to CVLs. Endothelial damage, disrupted blood flow, thrombogenic catheter material and infusion of drugs and TPN are the possible mechanisms to thrombus formation. Acute effects of CVL related thrombosis include: loss of CVL patency.
1110) Thrombophlebitis Septic
Catheter-related septic thrombophlebitis is a complication of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). This usually involves inflammation and suppuration within the wall of the vein, infected thrombus within the lumen, surrounding soft tissue inflammation, and persistent bacteremia. Septic pelvic vein thrombophlebitis is caused by a bacterial infection in the blood. Clinical signs include: prolonged spiking fever; pain on palpation of uterus; midline lower abdominal pain; malodorous lochia (vaginal discharge); tachycardia; tender abdominal mass;shortness of breath.
1111) Thrombophlebitis Superficial
Is the term for an inflamed vein near the surface of the skin (usually a varicose vein) caused by a blood clot. The causes superficial thrombophlebitis: An inherited (family) condition that increases your risk of blood clots; Cancer and some cancer treatments (chemotherapy; Limited blood flow because of an injury, surgery, or not moving; Long periods of inactivity that decrease blood flow. This is a serious condition that occurs when a piece of blood clot breaks off into the bloodstream. This then blocks one of the blood vessels in the lungs, preventing blood from reaching them. If left untreated, about 1 in 10 people with a DVT will develop a pulmonary embolism.
Occurs when blood clots block veins or arteries. Symptoms include pain and swelling in one leg, chest pain, or numbness on one side of the body. Complications of thrombosis can be life-threatening, such as a stroke or heart attack. A thrombus is a blood clot that occurs in and occludes a vein while a blood clot forms within an artery or vein and it can break off and travel to the heart or lungs, causing a medical emergency. DVT signs and symptoms can include: Swelling in the affected leg. Rarely, there’s swelling in both legs; Pain in your leg. The pain often starts in your calf and can feel like cramping or soreness; Red or discolored skin on the leg; A feeling of warmth in the affected leg.
1113) Thrombosis Corpora Cavernosa
Thrombosis is the interruption of blood flow by a clot in the blood vessels. Corpora Cavernosa Thrombosis occurs when the veins that carry deoxygenated blood in the penis become blocked. The symptoms of Corpora Cavernosa Thrombosis include pelvic pain, abnormal masses, and varicose veins. Corpora Cavernosa Thrombosis is often diagnosed using an MRI and is treated with anticoagulants. The pathophysiology of partial thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum is related to the fibrous septum and to the venous system of the proximal third of the penis, which drains into the cavernous veins and internal pudendal veins, all of which are affected by perineal compression.
1114) Thrombosis In Device
Thrombosis is the result of flow disturbance and surface biocompatibility (Jaffer et al., 2015). Medical devices stimulate coagulation through the activation of a series of interconnected processes including adsorption of proteins and adhesion of platelets and leukocytes, among others.
1115) Thrombosis Mesenteric Vessel
(MAT) is a condition involving occlusion of the arterial vascular supply of the intestinal system. It is a severe and potentially fatal illness typically of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), which provides the primary arterial supply to the small intestine and ascending colon. Causes of Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis: genetic disorders that make your blood more prone to clotting, such as Factor V Leiden thrombophilia, which is an inherited clotting disorder. abdominal infections, such as appendicitis. inflammatory bowel diseases, such as diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease.
1116) Thrombotic Cerebral Infarction
Thrombotic strokes are strokes caused by a thrombus (blood clot) that develops in the arteries supplying blood to the brain. This type of stroke is usually seen in older persons, especially those with high cholesterol and atherosclerosis (a buildup of fat and lipids inside the walls of blood vessels) or diabetes. A thrombotic stroke is a type of ischemic stroke. This means a part of the brain gets injured because the artery that normally supplies blood to it gets blocked, so blood flow is reduced or stops completely. A thrombotic stroke may also be called a cerebral thrombosis, a cerebral infarction or a cerebral infarct. Thrombotic strokes are divided into two categories based on the size of the area of blockage within the brain: large-vessel thrombosis and small-vessel thrombosis.
1117) Thrombotic Microangiopathy
(TMA) is a pathology that results in thrombosis in capillaries and arterioles, due to an endothelial injury. It may be seen in association with thrombocytopenia, anemia, purpura and kidney failure. The classic TMAs are hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. (TMA) is suspected in patients presenting with thrombocytopenia and evidence of a microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Patients with TMA can be critically ill, so rapid and accurate identification of the underlying etiology is essential.
1118) Thrombotic Stroke
Are strokes caused by a thrombus (blood clot) that develops in the arteries supplying blood to the brain. This type of stroke is usually seen in older persons, especially those with high cholesterol and atherosclerosis (a buildup of fat and lipids inside the walls of blood vessels) or diabetes. A thrombotic stroke is a type of ischemic stroke that occurs when a blood clot, also called a thrombus, forms and blocks blood flow through the artery in which it formed. 1 The blood clot may block the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a portion of the brain, causing long-term brain damage. Thrombotic Stroke Symptoms: Facial drooping; Slurred speech; Weakness, numbness or even paralysis on one side of the body; Double or blurred vision; Sudden difficulty walking or maintaining balance; Problems understanding speech; Sudden confusion.
1119) Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
Is a rare disorder that causes blood clots (thrombi) to form in small blood vessels throughout the body. These clots can cause serious medical problems if they block vessels and restrict blood flow to organs such as the brain, kidneys, and heart. In ITP, the immune system is stimulated to attack your body’s own platelets. Most often this is a result of antibody production against platelets. In a small number of cases, a type of white blood cell called T-cells will directly attack platelets. Symptoms: Petechiae, which are small, flat red spots under the skin caused by blood leaking from blood vessels; Purpura, which is bleeding in your skin that can cause red, purple, or brownish-yellow spots; Paleness or jaundice (a yellowish color of the skin or whites of the eyes); Extreme tiredness; A fever.
1120) Thyroid Disorder
The two main types of thyroid disease are hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Both conditions can be caused by other diseases that impact the way the thyroid gland works. Conditions that can cause hypothyroidism include: Thyroiditis: This condition is an inflammation (swelling) of the thyroid gland. 7 Early Warning Signs of Thyroid Issues: Fatigue; Weight gain; Weight loss; Slowed heart rate; Increased heart rate; Sensitivity to heat; Sensitivity to cold. 6 Common Thyroid Disorders & Problems: Hyperthyroidism; Hypothyroidism; Hashimoto’s disease; Graves’ disease; Goiter; Thyroid nodules; Thyroid conditions in children; Prevention.
1121) Thyroid Stimulating Immunoglobulin Increased
High levels of TSI in the blood can indicate the presence of Graves’ disease, which is an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland. If you have Graves’ disease, you’re more likely to develop other autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes or Addison’s disease.TSH is a hormone that is created by the pituitary gland that tells the thyroid gland how much thyroid hormone to make. Symptoms of high TSH include fatigue, depression, cold intolerance, constipation, infertility and other symptoms.
Is a general term that refers to “inflammation of the thyroid gland”. Thyroiditis includes a group of individual disorders causing thyroidal inflammation but presenting in different ways. Thyroiditis can trigger rapid thyroid cell damage. This causes thyroid hormone to leak into your blood and increases thyroid hormone levels. When this happens, you have symptoms of hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid). Symptoms may include pain in the throat, feeling generally unwell, swelling of the thyroid gland and, sometimes, symptoms of an overactive thyroid gland or symptoms of an underactive thyroid gland. Symptoms usually get better when the infection is treated with antibiotics.
1123) Tongue Amyloidosis
An enlarged tongue (macroglossia) can be a sign of amyloidosis. It can sometimes also appear rippled along its edge. You may not experience signs and symptoms of amyloidosis until the condition is advanced. When signs and symptoms are evident, they depend on which of your organs are affected. 10 signs you might have it: Urine changes and swollen legs; Unintentional, significant weight loss; Severe fatigue; Shortness of breath; Numbness, tingling, weakness or pain in your hands or feet; Diarrhea or constipation; An enlarged tongue; Skin changes.
1124) Tongue Biting
Biting your lips, cheeks, or tongue is a common habit for many people. While it may seem relatively harmless, biting the soft tissues in our mouths can lead to serious and painful problems. Frequent tongue-biting may be an indication of: Sleep apnea. Night seizures. Rhythmic movement disorder. When you have MS, your own immune system attacks the nerves in your brain and spinal cord. That can cause numbness or strange sensations, including in your tongue or face. MS can make it harder for you to chew or swallow and more likely for you to bite your tongue or the inner side of your cheeks.
1125) Tongue Oedema
A swollen tongue may affect one or both sides of the tongue and be accompanied by itching, pain, drooling, and a change of taste. The rapid, severe swelling of the tongue may be a sign of a potentially life-threatening allergy known as anaphylaxis. Immediately after treatment, for both pain relief and minimizing tongue edema, using ice or a Popsicle is strongly recommended for the first 24 to 48 hours.
1126) Tonic Clonic Movements
Tonic-clonic seizures involve both tonic (stiffening) and clonic (twitching or jerking) phases of muscle activity. Tonic-clonic seizures may start with a simple partial seizure or aura. The person may experience changes in sensation, mood or emotion leading up to the tonic-clonic seizure. Tonic-clonic seizures: tonic stage – you lose consciousness, your body goes stiff, and you may fall to the floor; clonic stage – your limbs jerk about, you may lose control of your bladder or bowel, you may bite your tongue or the inside of your cheek, and you might have difficulty breathing.
1127) Tonic Convulsion
Causes a sudden stiffness or tension in the muscles of the arms, legs or trunk. The stiffness lasts about 20 seconds and is most likely to happen during sleep. Tonic seizures that occur while the person is standing may cause them to fall. Tonic-clonic seizures: tonic stage – you lose consciousness, your body goes stiff, and you may fall to the floor. clonic stage – your limbs jerk about, you may lose control of your bladder or bowel, you may bite your tongue or the inside of your cheek, and you might have difficulty breathing.
1128) Tonic Posturing
Is characterized by sustained tonic flexion or extension of the limbs. The symptomatogenic zone associated with tonic posturing is generally accepted to be the supplementary sensorimotor area (SSMA). 1 Seizure may result from epileptic activity originating in or spreading to the SSMA.
Excision of part of the cerebral cortex for the relief of unmanageable pain or esp. as a treatment for certain mental disorders. You might also have pain or cramps in your belly, fatigue, mild vaginal bleeding, dizziness, or a sore throat from the anesthesia. If the surgeon used gas to blow up your abdomen to do the tubal ligation, you may have some bloating. It could cause belly or shoulder pain. This should go away in a couple of days.
1130) Total Bile Acids Increased
Bile acid levels are increased in the serum and liver in patients with obstructive jaundice or cholestasis and, perhaps because of their inherent detergent activities, can cause hepatocyte injury. Thus, increased bile acid levels in hepatocytes may account for some of the liver damage in cholestatic liver diseases. Total bile acids are metabolized in the liver and can serve as a marker for normal liver function. Increases in serum bile acids are seen in patients with acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, liver sclerosis, liver cancer, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.
1131) Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
Is a life-threatening skin disorder characterized by a blistering and peeling of the skin. This disorder can be caused by a drug reaction—often antibiotics or anticonvulsives. The symptoms of toxic epidermal necrolysis: A painful, red area that spreads quickly. The skin may peel without blistering. Raw areas of skin. Discomfort. Fever. Condition spread to eyes, mouth/throat, and genitals/urethra/anus.
1132) Toxic Leukoencephalopathy
Is a rare condition that is characterized by progressive damage (-pathy) to white matter (-leuko-) in the brain (-encephalo-), particularly myelin, due to causes such as exposure to substance use, environmental toxins, or chemotherapeutic drugs. Obvious signs of the condition are difficulty with cognitive function and equilibrioception. Common initial symptoms include confusion, somnolence, generalized seizures, headaches, and vision impairment.
1133) Toxic Oil Syndrome
Also called toxic epidemic syndrome, was a widespread systemic disease that occurred in Spain in 1981. The epidemic was believed to be caused by the ingestion of rapeseed cooking oil that had been denatured with 2% aniline (phenylamine) and illicitly sold as olive oil. Studies suggest that contaminating aniline derivatives were responsible for both syndromes. The clinical presentation is biphasic. The acute manifestations are fever, headache, pruritic or tender rashes, and dyspnea, associated with systemic hypereosinophilia.
1134) Tracheal Obstruction
A life-threatening emergency that requires immediate therapy, manifests itself by cough, wheezing, exertional dyspnea, hemoptysis, and respiratory arrest. Symptoms of an airway obstruction can vary depending on how severe the blockage is, including: Violent coughing; Struggling to breathe; Turning blue; Choking; Gagging; Vomiting; Wheezing.
1135) Tracheal Oedema
Tracheal edema syndrome is characterized by extensive edema of the mucosa and submucosa in the dorsal membrane of the lower trachea. The initial signs are a loud inspiratory noise (stridor) and the onset of dyspnea. Forced movement causes the respiratory distress to worsen. The cattle become cyanotic and typically collapse and die of asphyxiation in <24 hr.
Is inflammation of the trachea and bronchi. It is characterised by a cough, fever, and purulent (containing pus) sputum and is therefore suggestive of pneumonia. It is classified as a respiratory tract infection. The common symptoms of tracheobronchitis are: severe cough; sore throat; fatigue; nasal congestion; shortness of breath; wheezing; nausea; vomiting. Viruses cause 85% to 95% of cases of acute bronchitis in healthy adults. The most common viruses are rhinovirus, adenovirus, influenza A and B, and parainfluenza virus; bacteria are usually commensals. Bacteria can cause bronchitis in people with underlying health problems.
1137) Tracheobronchitis Mycoplasmal
Tracheobronchitis is inflammation of the trachea and bronchi. It is characterised by a cough, fever, and purulent (containing pus) sputum and is therefore suggestive of pneumonia. It is classified as a respiratory tract infection. Mycoplasma (plural mycoplasmas or mycoplasmata) is a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall around their cell membranes. This characteristic makes them naturally resistant to antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis (like the beta-lactam antibiotics). They can be parasitic or saprotrophic.
1138) Tracheobronchitis Viral
Viruses cause 85% to 95% of cases of acute bronchitis in healthy adults. The most common viruses are rhinovirus, adenovirus, influenza A and B, and parainfluenza virus; bacteria are usually commensals. Bacteria can cause bronchitis in people with underlying health problems. Tracheobronchitis occurs when the windpipe or bronchi become inflamed. This is usually due to a viral or bacterial infection, but it can also be the result of some kind of irritant, such as cigarette smoke.
1139) Transaminases Abnormal
Transaminitis, or hypertransaminasemia, refers to unusually high levels of a family of enzymes called transaminases. Transaminitis is not a disease, but it can point to other issues that require treatment. High levels of fat or similar problems may be causing inflammation in the liver. Transaminitis, sometimes called hypertransaminasemia, refers to having high levels of certain liver enzymes called transaminases. When you have too many enzymes in your liver, they start to move into your blood stream.
1140) Transaminases Increased
Transaminitis, or hypertransaminasemia, refers to unusually high levels of a family of enzymes called transaminases. Transaminitis is not a disease, but it can point to other issues that require treatment. High levels of fat or similar problems may be causing inflammation in the liver. Symptoms of Transaminitis: Loss of appetite; Nausea; Vomiting; Weakness.
Tiredness; Stomach pain or fullness; Yellow color of the skin or whites of the eyes called jaundice; Urine that is dark or looks like tea; Loss of appetite; Nausea; Vomiting; Weakness; Tiredness; Stomach pain or fullness; Yellow color of the skin or whites of the eyes called jaundice; Urine that is dark or looks like tea.
1141) Transfusion-Related Alloimmune Neutropenia
We suggest the term transfusion-related alloimmune neutropenia (TRAIN) for this previously undescribed complication of blood transfusion. Donor antibodies against neutrophils have been described in association with TRALI, and some have suggested that these antibodies might be causative factors in this condition.
1142) Transient Epileptic Amnesia
(TEA) is a clinical presentation of focal epilepsy of presumed temporal origin which is characterized by self-resolving episodes of retrograde and/or anterograde amnesia. In attacks that begin when an individual is fully alert, olfactory hallucinations or a “strange taste” or nausea have been reported. Somewhat less than half the cases include olfactory or gustatory hallucinations, and slightly more than a third involve motor automatisms.
1143) Transverse Sinus Thrombosis
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) occurs when a blood clot forms in the brain’s venous sinuses. This prevents blood from draining out of the brain. As a result, blood cells may break and leak blood into the brain tissues, forming a hemorrhage. Symptoms of venous sinus thrombosis may include: Weakness; Headaches; Pain in the sinus area; Pain or pressure in the ear; Loss of vision, double vision, or blurred vision; Swelling around the eyes.
1144) Trigeminal Nerve Paresis
This chronic pain condition affects the trigeminal nerve, which carries sensation from your face to your brain. If you have trigeminal neuralgia, even mild stimulation of your face — such as from brushing your teeth or putting on makeup — may trigger a jolt of excruciating pain. Though what triggers acute attacks will vary from patient to patient, common activities that cause trigeminal neuralgia to ramp up include: Hot, cold, spicy, or sour foods and beverages. Brushing your teeth. Gentle touch, including a breeze or face washing.
1145) Trigeminal Neuralgia
Is sudden, severe facial pain. It’s often described as a sharp shooting pain or like having an electric shock in the jaw, teeth or gums. It usually happens in short, unpredictable attacks that can last from a few seconds to about 2 minutes. The attacks stop as suddenly as they start. Trigeminal neuralgia usually occurs spontaneously, but is sometimes associated with facial trauma or dental procedures. The condition may be caused by a blood vessel pressing against the trigeminal nerve, also known as vascular compression.
1146) Trigeminal Palsy
Trigeminal neuralgia is a condition that causes painful sensations similar to an electric shock on one side of the face. This chronic pain condition affects the trigeminal nerve, which carries sensation from your face to your brain. Symptoms: Episodes of severe, shooting or jabbing pain that may feel like an electric shock. Spontaneous attacks of pain or attacks triggered by things such as touching the face, chewing, speaking or brushing teeth. Attacks of pain lasting from a few seconds to several minutes. Pain that occurs with facial spasms.
1147) Truncus Coeliacus Thrombosis
Coeliac artery thrombosis with ischaemia is a rare condition, which usually presents with severe peptic ulcer disease symptoms. It is usually associated with risk factors for thrombosis or embolism. The manifestation is rare because of large number of collaterals between the coeliac and superior mesentery artery. The main symptoms are chronic abdominal pain that has lasted several months, abdominal pain after eating, weight loss, and sometimes an abdominal bruit, or the sound made by blood flowing through an obstruction.
1148) Tuberous Sclerosis Complex
Is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous noncancerous (benign) tumors in many parts of the body. These tumors can occur in the brain, kidneys, heart, skin, and other organs, in some cases leading to significant health problems. Symptoms of tuberous sclerosis: White spots on your skin that glow under a special lamp; A rash on your face that may look like acne; Problems with your kidneys; Areas of very thick skin, often on your back; Growths under or around your nails; Pitted teeth; Mental disabilities; Developmental delays.
1149) Tubulointerstitial Nephritis And Uveitis Syndrome
(TINU) describes a rare form of bilateral non-granulomatous anterior uveitis found in a sub-population of patients with tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN). It was first described in 1975 by Dobrin et.al. The uveitis is usually mild and the nephritis self-limited.
1150) Tumefactive Multiple Sclerosis
Is a rare form of multiple sclerosis (MS) with symptoms similar to those of a brain tumor. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, the condition appears as tumor-like lesions larger than two centimeters. Tumefactive MS symptoms may include: Headaches; Cognitive abnormalities; Mental confusion; Difficulty understanding and forming speech, known as aphasia; Difficulty with the movement patterns needed to produce speech, known as apraxia; Seizures; Weakness.
1151) Tumour Embolism
The term tumor embolism refers to tumor emboli of sufficient size or number to result in clinical and radiologic manifestations that resemble pulmonary embolism. Tumor embolism is seen most commonly in metastatic renal cell carcinoma; hepatocellular carcinoma; and carcinomas of the breast, stomach, and prostate. Pulmonary tumor embolism syndrome can present in a variety of ways, ranging from acute hypoxia due to large proximal emboli to indolent pulmonary hypertension developing from lymphatic or microvascular invasion (14). Patients can present with a wide range of symptoms including dyspnea, chest pain, and cough.
1152) Tumour Thrombosis
Intravascular tumor thrombus is defined as tumor extension into a vessel. Its presence changes stage, prognosis, and treatment. It occurs in a wide variety of malignancies, most frequently in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), Wilms tumor, adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tumor thrombus may be asymptomatic or may cause a variety of symptoms including varicocele, lower extremity swelling, cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary embolism, or Budd-Chiari syndrome.
1153) Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Type 1 diabetes is thought to be caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistake). This reaction destroys the cells in the pancreas that make insulin, called beta cells. This process can go on for months or years before any symptoms appear.
1154) Type I Hypersensitivity
Type I hypersensitivity (or immediate hypersensitivity) is an allergic reaction provoked by re-exposure to a specific type of antigen referred to as an allergen. Type I is distinct from type II, type III and type IV hypersensitivities. Exposure may be by ingestion, inhalation, injection, or direct contact. Some physical symptoms of type 1 hypersensitivity can include: rash; flushing; hives; itching; edema; wheezing; rhinitis; stomach cramps.
1155) Type Iii Immune Complex Mediated Reaction
An abnormal immune response is mediated by the formation of antigen-antibody aggregates called “immune complexes.” They can precipitate in various tissues such as skin, joints, vessels, or glomeruli, and trigger the classical complement pathway. Examples of type III hypersensitivity reactions include drug-induced serum sickness, farmer’s lung and systemic lupus erythematosus.
1156) Uhthoff’s Phenomenon
(Also known as Uhthoff sign or Uhthoff syndrome) is described a transient worsening of neurological symptoms related to a demyelinating disorder such as multiple sclerosis when the body becomes overheated in hot weather, exercise, fever, saunas, or hot tubs. Uhthoff’s phenomenon or Uhthoff’s sign is the temporary worsening of MS symptoms caused by an increase in temperature. It is usually applied to optic neuritis and other visual symptoms but can also refer to fatigue, pain, balance, weakness, bladder issues, cognitive or sensory symptoms.
1157) Ulcerative Keratitis
Is the general term for the group of disease processes leading to corneal ulceration, as well as the term for the inflammation that accompanies ulceration. Types of bacteria that commonly cause bacterial keratitis include: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Staphylococcus aureus. Signs and symptoms of keratitis include: Eye redness; Eye pain; Excess tears or other discharge from your eye; Difficulty opening your eyelid because of pain or irritation; Blurred vision; Decreased vision; Sensitivity to light (photophobia); A feeling that something is in your eye.
1158) Ultrasound Liver Abnormal
More than 5-6% of fat in the liver is considered abnormal. Ultrasound elastography is a special ultrasound technique to test for liver fibrosis. The movement of the liver caused by ultrasound wave is measured in the middle of the liver, and its stiffness (or elasticity) is calculated. Echogenic liver occurs when the echoes from the ultrasound seem brighter than average. If it is very bright, it could mean that you have fatty liver, cirrhosis, or chronic hepatitis. Infectious diseases are also known to make the organ look brighter.
1159) Umbilical Cord Thrombosis
Is a rare complication of pregnancy strongly associated with poor fetal and perinatal outcomes, such as intrauterine asphyxia, fetal growth restriction, and stillbirth. The etiology of umbilical vessel thrombosis may be understood through Virchow’s triad of reduced blood flow, hypercoagulability, and vascular abnormality. Hypercoagulability may be associated with inherited or acquired, maternal or fetal, thrombophilia.
1160) Uncinate Fits
A crude sensation of smell or of taste or in. which there are movements of chewing, smacking of the lips, and sometimes spitting, etc.” For these seizures, Jackson proposed the. name “uncinate group of fits,” basing this term. Jackson and Stewart named them “uncinate fits” . Chen et al.  reported that 5.5% of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy experienced olfactory auras. They are usually accompanied by other types of auras such as rising epigastric discomfort and a sensation of fear, followed by complex partial seizures.
1161) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease
Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is type of autoimmune disease , which means that the immune system malfunctions and mistakenly “attacks” a person’s own healthy tissues . However, like many autoimmune diseases, the reason a person develops UCTD is not known. Common symptoms of undifferentiated connective tissue disease include: Weight loss.
Fatigue; Low-grade fevers; Rash; Joint pain; Joint swelling; Color changes of hands and feet with cold exposure (known as Raynaud’s disease); Dryness of the eyes.
1162) Upper Airway Obstruction
Is defined as occlusion or narrowing of the airways leading to compromise in ventilation. Obstruction can vary from acute to chronic, from congenital to acquired, and in many cases, can be fatal if left untreated. Symptoms: Agitation or fidgeting; Bluish color to the skin (cyanosis); Changes in consciousness; Choking; Confusion; Difficulty breathing, gasping for air, leading to panic; Unconsciousness; Wheezing, crowing, whistling, or other unusual breathing noises indicating breathing difficulty.
1163) Urine Bilirubin Increased
What is a bilirubin in urine test? A bilirubin in urine test measures the levels of bilirubin in your urine. Bilirubin is a yellowish substance made during the body’s normal process of breaking down red blood cells. Bilirubin is found in bile, a fluid in your liver that helps you digest food. Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease. Cirrhosis. Gallstones in the biliary tract. Hepatitis.
1164) Urobilinogen Urine Decreased
If your test results show too little or no urobilinogen in your urine, it may indicate: A blockage in the structures that carry bile from your liver. A blockage in the blood flow of the liver. A problem with liver function. If bilirubin is found in your urine, it may indicate: A liver disease such as hepatitis. A blockage in the structures that carry bile from your liver. A problem with liver function.
1165) Urobilinogen Urine Increased
The normal urobilinogen concentration in urine ranges from 0.1-1.8 mg/dl (1.7-30 µmol/l), concentrations >2.0 mg/dl (34 µmol/l) are considered to be pathological. Jaundice, a condition that causes your skin and eyes to turn yellow. Nausea and/or vomiting. Dark colored urine. Pain and swelling in the abdomen. Two situations can lead to an increase in urobilinogen levels in urine: a liver disease that disturbs the normal passage of urobilinogen through the liver and gallbladder (viral hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, obstruction of the gallbladder by gallstones, etc.).
Hives (urticaria) are red, itchy welts that result from a skin reaction. The welts vary in size and appear and fade repeatedly as the reaction runs its course. The condition is considered chronic hives if the welts appear for more than six weeks and recur frequently over months or years. Urticaria occurs when a trigger causes high levels of histamine and other chemical messengers to be released in the skin. These substances cause the blood vessels in the affected area of skin to open up (often resulting in redness or pinkness) and become leaky.
1167) Urticaria Papular
Is an allergic reaction to insect bites or stings. The condition causes itchy red bumps on the skin. Some bumps can become fluid-filled blisters, called vesicles or bullae, depending on size. Papular urticaria is more common in children between the ages of 2 and 10. Papular urticaria is generally regarded to be the result of a hypersensitivity or id reaction to bites from insects, such as mosquitoes, gnats, fleas, mites, bedbugs, caterpillars, and moths. Varicella vaccines have also been implicated.
1168) Uterine Rupture
Is spontaneous tearing of the uterus that may result in the fetus being expelled into the peritoneal cavity. Uterine rupture is rare. It can occur during late pregnancy or active labor. Uterine rupture occurs most often along healed scar lines in women who have had prior cesarean deliveries. Risks of Uterine Rupture: In rare cases, uterine rupture is a fatal condition for both the mother and baby. If left untreated, it may lead to permanent physical damage to the mother, including the inability to sustain future pregnancies. If your baby is in the womb during a uterine rupture, you may have a miscarriage.
Is a form of eye inflammation. It affects the middle layer of tissue in the eye wall (uvea). Uveitis (u-vee-I-tis) warning signs often come on suddenly and get worse quickly. They include eye redness, pain and blurred vision. Usually a dull ache in or around your eye, which may be worse when focusing. eye redness. sensitivity to light (photophobia) blurred or cloudy vision. The mean duration of visual loss was 20.35 months for patients with moderate visual loss and 22.8 months in patients with severe loss of vision. In patients with unilateral visual loss the mean duration was 20 months whereas it was 42.61 months in patients with bilateral visual morbidity.
1170) Vagus Nerve Paralysis
Vagus nerve lesions produce palatal and pharyngeal paralysis; laryngeal paralysis; and abnormalities of esophageal motility, gastric acid secretion, gallbladder emptying, and heart rate; and other autonomic dysfunction. If the vagus nerve becomes damaged by physical trauma or the growth of a tumor, it may cause digestive symptoms, or hoarseness, paralysis of the vocal cords and slowed heart rate.
(Chickenpox) is an acute infectious disease. It is caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which is a DNA virus that is a member of the herpesvirus group. After the primary infection, VZV stays in the body (in the sensory nerve ganglia) as a latent infection. Primary infection with VZV causes varicella. Chickenpox is normally a mild disease. But it can be serious and can lead to complications including: Bacterial infections of the skin, soft tissues, bones, joints or bloodstream (sepsis) Dehydration.
1172) Varicella Keratitis
Conclusions In patients with AIDS, varicella-zoster virus may cause a chronic infection of the corneal epithelium. The keratitis is characterized by dendriform lesions, prolonged course, and frequently by extreme pain. It can occur without an associated dermatitis. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a Herpes virus responsible for chicken pox and shingles. With corneal epithelial involvement, the virus can cause punctate or dendritic epithelial keratitis. The pseudodendrites caused by VZV can be differentiated clinically from “true” dendrites caused by Herpes simplex virus (HSV).
1173) Varicella Post Vaccine
Varicella (chickenpox): A highly infectious viral disease, known familiarly as chickenpox. (In many countries, this disease is always called “varicella.”) In rare cases, it can cause major problems including pneumonia and encephalitis. Reactivation of the same herpes virus is responsible for shingles(zoster). The classic symptom of chickenpox is a rash that turns into itchy, fluid-filled blisters that eventually turn into scabs. The rash may first show up on the chest, back, and face, and then spread over the entire body, including inside the mouth, eyelids, or genital area.
1174) Varicella Zoster Gastritis
The varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a very rare cause of gastritis. Gastritis caused by VZV can be presented as abdominal pain, vomiting. Most of the cases reported with varicella gastritis in the literature are immunocompromised patients with various kinds of malignancy, and most of these patients are adults. Varicella (chickenpox) is an acute infectious disease. It is caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which is a DNA virus that is a member of the herpesvirus group. After the primary infection, VZV stays in the body (in the sensory nerve ganglia) as a latent infection. Primary infection with VZV causes varicella. Gastritis is a general term for a group of conditions with one thing in common: Inflammation of the lining of the stomach. The inflammation of gastritis is most often the result of infection with the same bacterium that causes most stomach ulcers or the regular use of certain pain relievers.
1175) Varicella Zoster Oesophagitis
Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). It can cause an itchy, blister-like rash. The rash first appears on the chest, back, and face, and then spreads over the entire body, causing between 250 and 500 itchy blisters. Oesophagitis is an inflammation of the lining of the gullet (oesophagus). In most people it is caused by the digestive juices from the stomach, repeatedly moving upwards (reflux) into the lower oesophagus producing redness and ulceration.
1176) Varicella Zoster Pneumonia
Varicella pneumonia is a type of viral pneumonia. It is a common cause of multiple small round calcific lung lesions. Varicella-zoster virus most commonly causes self-limited benign disease (chickenpox) in children. However, in adults it tends to cause significant complications including varicella pneumonia. Serious complications from chickenpox include: Bacterial infections of the skin and soft tissues in children, including Group A streptococcal infections. Infection of the lungs (pneumonia).
1177) Varicella Zoster Sepsis
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an exclusively human neurotropic alpha-herpesvirus. Primary infection causes varicella (chickenpox), after which virus becomes latent in cranial nerve ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, and autonomic ganglia along the entire neuraxis. Postherpetic neuralgia, acute encephalitis, aseptic meningitis and myelitis are the most frequent diseases and have been recorded both in association with herpes zoster and in the absence of a cutaneous rash. Sepsis is the body’s extreme response to an infection. It is a life-threatening medical emergency. Sepsis happens when an infection you already have triggers a chain reaction throughout your body. Infections that lead to sepsis most often start in the lung, urinary tract, skin, or gastrointestinal tract.
1178) Varicella Zoster Virus Infection
Varicella (chickenpox) is an acute infectious disease. It is caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which is a DNA virus that is a member of the herpesvirus group. After the primary infection, VZV stays in the body (in the sensory nerve ganglia) as a latent infection. Primary infection with VZV causes varicella. Pain and paresthesia are typically the first symptoms of VZV infection. Until the characteristic vesicular rash erupts, diagnosis may be difficult. A prodromal period during which symptoms may vary is common. Pain occurs in 41% of patients, itching in 27%, and paresthesias in 12%.
1179) Vasa Praevia
Is a condition in which fetal blood vessels cross or run near the internal opening of the uterus. These vessels are at risk of rupture when the supporting membranes rupture, as they are unsupported by the umbilical cord or placental tissue. Risk factors include low-lying placenta, in vitro fertilization.Vasa previa is a condition that occurs when blood vessels that connect the fetus to the placenta are not in their normal position. Instead of being inside the amniotic sac where they are protected, some of the blood vessels lie outside the sac across or near the cervix. Some women have painless vaginal bleeding that is dark in color. Because your baby’s blood doesn’t have as much oxygen in it as yours does, it appears darker. In vasa previa that hasn’t been found before labor, the symptoms include vaginal bleeding after your membranes rupture. Your baby may also have a slow heartbeat.
1180) Vascular Graft Thrombosis
Vascular grafting is most commonly done to bypass a complete or partial blockage in an artery in order to improve blood flow to the organ supplied by the diseased artery. Thrombosis is local coagulation or clotting of the blood in a part of the circulatory system.
1181) Vascular Pseudoaneurysm Thrombosis
Local manifestations of pseudoaneurysm result from compression of surrounding tissues that can result in neuropathy, ischemia, and venous obstruction that can result in deep vein thrombosis (DVT). We present a case of right lower extremity DVT due to the compression of the femoral vein secondary to iatrogenic FAP. Pseudoaneurysms also pose a risk of blood clots that can travel to your heart, lungs, or brain and cause serious health problems such as heart attack or stroke.
1182) Vascular Purpura
Purpura occurs when small blood vessels burst, causing blood to pool under the skin. This can create purple spots on the skin that range in size from small dots to large patches. Purpura spots are generally benign, but may indicate a more serious medical condition, such as a blood clotting disorder.
1183) Vascular Stent Thrombosis
Stent thrombosis is a thrombotic occlusion of a coronary stent. This is usually an acute process in contrast to restenosis, which is a gradual narrowing of the stent lumen due to neointimal proliferation. Stent thrombosis often results in an acute coronary syndrome, while restenosis often results in anginal symptoms. Stent thrombosis can occur acutely (within 24 hours), subacutely (within 30 days), or as late as one year (late) or more (very late) after stent placement. Clots that form inside a stent, also known as stent thrombosis, can block blood flow to the heart and cause a heart attack or even death. Use of an additional stent during emergency treatment of a stent-related blood clot is a strong predictor of repeat stent thrombosis, the researchers said.
1184) Vasculitic Rash
Vasculitis involves inflammation of the blood vessels. The inflammation can cause the walls of the blood vessels to thicken, which reduces the width of the passageway through the vessel. If blood flow is restricted, it can result in organ and tissue damage. There are many types of vasculitis, and most of them are rare. Common vasculitis skin lesions are: red or purple dots (petechiae), usually most numerous on the legs. larger spots, about the size of the end of a finger (purpura), some of which look like large bruises. Less common vasculitis lesions are hives, an itchy lumpy rash and painful or tender lumps.
1185) Vasculitic Ulcer
Vasculitic ulcers are an emerging problem in wound care that needs to be well defined and adequately approached by caregivers. Cutaneous vasculitis includes several inflammatory disorders that compromise microvessels and specifically the cutaneous vascular system: arterioles, capillaries, postcapillary venules. Venous ulcers typically occur because of damage to the valves inside the leg veins. These valves control the blood pressure inside the veins. They allow it to drop when you walk. If the blood pressure inside your leg veins doesn’t fall as you’re walking, the condition is called sustained venous hypertension.
Vasculitis means inflammation of the blood vessels. This may be triggered by an infection or a medicine, although often the cause is unknown. Vasculitis can range from a minor problem that just affects the skin, to a more serious illness that causes problems with organs like the heart or kidneys. Vasculitis is an inflammation of the blood vessels. It happens when the body’s immune system attacks the blood vessel by mistake. It can happen because of an infection, a medicine, or another disease.
1187) Vasculitis Gastrointestinal
The gastrointestinal vasculature can be involved by a variety of vasculitis affecting large, medium, small or variable vessel size. (GI) is one of the most severe complications of vasculitis requiring intensive immunosuppressive therapy and sometimes revascularization techniques or emergency surgery and may affect a variety of organs including large or small intestines, liver, biliary tract, pancreas, and less frequently, stomach or oesophagus. Venous ulcers typically occur because of damage to the valves inside the leg veins. These valves control the blood pressure inside the veins. They allow it to drop when you walk. If the blood pressure inside your leg veins doesn’t fall as you’re walking, the condition is called sustained venous hypertension.
1188) Vasculitis Necrotising
Is a group of disorders that involve inflammation of the blood vessel walls. The size of the affected blood vessels helps to determine the names of these conditions and how the disorder causes disease. Necrotizing vasculitis, or systemic necrotizing vasculitis (SNV), is an inflammation of blood vessel walls. It typically affects small and medium blood vessels. This inflammation can interrupt your normal blood flow. It results in skin and muscle damage, including necrosis.
1189) Vena Cava Embolism
Inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis is a disease associated with high morbidity. Although the condition is considered rare, case reports have shown that IVC thromboses may be underdiagnosed. For example, most commonly, pulmonary emboli are thought to arise from a lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. Presenting symptoms of IVC thrombosis include leg heaviness, pain, swelling, and cramping, often preceded by nonspecific back and abdominal/pelvic pain.
1190) Vena Cava Thrombosis
Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is an under-recognized entity that is associated with significant short and long-term morbidity and mortality. In absence of a congenital anomaly, the most common cause of IVC thrombosis is the presence of an unretrieved IVC filter. Insertion of dialysis catheters, femoral venous catheters, pacemaker wires, and vena cava filters are all potential causes of inferior vena cava thrombosis.
1191) Venous Intravasation
Refers to the transit of contrast from the uterine cavity, through the myometrium, and into draining pelvic veins. Contrast may also drain into the lymphatic system (lymphatic intravasation).
1192) Venous Recanalisation
Involves delivering drugs to the area to break up the blood clots, preserving the vein valve function. Recanalization is defined as the return of blood flow to a venous segment that had previously been occluded. These include pain, a weak or non-existent pulse, paleness, paraesthesia (‘pins and needles’) and paralysis. In the long term, it can cause permanent complications such as tissue necrosis (the premature death of cells).
1193) Venous Thrombosis
Is blockage of a vein caused by a thrombus (blood clot). A common form of venous thrombosis is deep vein thrombosis (DVT), when a blood clot forms in the deep veins. Get medical help right away if you notice any of these symptoms: Swelling. This can happen in the exact spot where the blood clot forms, or your entire leg or arm could puff up; Change in color; Pain; Warm skin; Trouble breathing; Lower leg cramp; Pitting edema; Swollen, painful veins.
1194) Venous Thrombosis In Pregnancy
Pregnancy increases your risk of a DVT, with the highest risk being just after you have had your baby. However, venous thrombosis is still uncommon in pregnancy or in the first 6 weeks after birth, occurring in only 1–2 in 1000 women. A DVT can occur at any time during your pregnancy, including the first 3 months. During pregnancy, factors that increase the risk of DVT and venous thromboembolism include: Varicose veins. Diabetes. Multiple gestation (carrying twins or multiples). Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in the United States, accounting for 9.3% of all maternal deaths 10.
1195) Venous Thrombosis Limb
A blood clot in a leg vein may cause pain, warmth and tenderness in the affected area. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one or more of the deep veins in your body, usually in your legs. Deep vein thrombosis can cause leg pain or swelling but also can occur with no symptoms. Symptoms and Diagnosis of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE): Leg pain or tenderness of the thigh or calf; Leg swelling (edema); Skin that feels warm to the touch; Reddish discoloration or red streaks.
1196) Venous Thrombosis Neonatal
Neonatal VTE most commonly occurs in the hospital, in the neonatal intensive care unit, as a reflection or effect of more significant illness. The main causes of DVT are damage to a vein from surgery or trauma and inflammation due to infection or injury. More than 80 per cent of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in newborns is secondary to CVLs. Endothelial damage, disrupted blood flow, thrombogenic catheter material and infusion of drugs and TPN are the possible mechanisms to thrombus formation. Acute effects of CVL related thrombosis include: loss of CVL patency.
1197) Vertebral Artery Thrombosis
Vertebral artery thrombosis results in complete or partial occlusion of the vertebral artery and alteration of blood flow to the posterior cerebral circulation. Ischemia or infarction to structures supplied by these arteries may result in a range of symptoms.
1198) Vessel Puncture Site Thrombosis
Thrombosis is more common at the radial artery than at the brachial or femoral artery. It is more likely if the arterial puncture is performed on a vessel with occlusive disease. Thrombosis may lead to ischemia and gangrene distal to the puncture.
1199) Visceral Venous Thrombosis
Is thrombosis of the visceral veins and includes thrombosis of the splenic, hepatic, portal, mesenteric, renal, and ovarian veins, among others. Thrombosis can be either acute or chronic and have variable clinical presentations. Swelling in your foot, ankle, or leg, usually on one side. cramping pain in your affected leg that usually begins in your calf. severe, unexplained pain in your foot and ankle. an area of skin that feels warmer than the skin on the surrounding areas.
1200) Vith Nerve Paralysis
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. The most common causes of sixth cranial nerve palsy are stroke, trauma, viral illness, brain tumor, inflammation, infection, migraine headache and elevated pressure inside the brain. The condition can be present at birth; however, the most common cause in children is trauma.
1201) Vith Nerve Paresis
Sixth nerve palsy occurs when the sixth cranial nerve is damaged or doesn’t work right. It’s also known as the abducens nerve. This condition causes problems with eye movement. The sixth cranial nerve sends signals to your lateral rectus muscle. This is a small muscle that attaches to the outer side of your eye. The signs and symptoms of sixth nerve palsy vary but may include: Double vision (particularly when looking to one side) Headaches. Pain around the eye.
Is a long-term condition where pale white patches develop on the skin. It’s caused by the lack of melanin, which is the pigment in skin. Vitiligo can affect any area of skin, but it commonly happens on the face, neck and hands, and in skin creases. Vitiligo does not pose a serious threat to one’s health, but it can result in physical complications, such as eye issues, hearing problems, and sunburn. People with vitiligo also tend to be more likely to have another autoimmune disease (like thyroid disorders and some types of anemia).
1203) Vocal Cord Paralysis
Occurs when the nerve impulses to your voice box (larynx) are disrupted. This results in paralysis of the vocal cord muscles. Vocal cord paralysis can affect your ability to speak and even breathe. That’s because your vocal cords, sometimes called vocal folds, do more than just produce sound. Patients with vocal paralysis typically experience hoarseness, vocal fatigue, mild to severe reduction in speech volume, a pain in the throat when speaking, and swallowing things down the wrong way and choking.
1204) Vocal Cord Paresis
Also known as recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis or vocal fold paralysis, is an injury to one or both recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLNs), which control all muscles of the larynx except for the cricothyroid muscle. The RLN is important for speaking, breathing and swallowing. Possible causes include nerve damage during surgery, viral infections and certain cancers. Treatment for vocal cord paralysis usually involves surgery, and sometimes voice therapy.
1205) Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease
Is a rare disorder of unknown origin that affects many body systems, including as the eyes, ears, skin, and the covering of the brain and spinal cord (the meninges). The most noticeable symptom is a rapid loss of vision. (VKH) is a multisystem disease of presumed autoimmune cause that affects melanin-pigmented tissues. The most significant manifestation is bilateral, diffuse uveitis, which affects the eyes.
1206) Warm Type Haemolytic Anaemia
(WAHA) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the premature destruction of healthy red blood cells (hemolysis). Autoimmune diseases occur when one’s own immune system attacks healthy tissue. A test that is positive at temperatures ≥ 37° C indicates warm antibody hemolytic anemia. Autoantibodies are mainly of the IgG1 isotype, and they bind and react optimally with RBCs at a temperature of 37° C (range, 35 to 40° C). In warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia, the hemolysis is mainly extravascular and occurs predominantly in the spleen.
Is the shrill whistle or coarse rattle you hear when your airway is partially blocked. It might be blocked because of an allergic reaction, a cold, bronchitis or allergies. Wheezing is also a symptom of asthma, pneumonia, heart failure and more. Wheezing happens when the airways are tightened, blocked, or inflamed, making a person’s breathing sound like whistling or squeaking. Common causes include a cold, asthma, allergies, or more serious conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
1208) White Nipple Sign
Is a term used to describe a fresh fibrin clot on a varix that has bled recently. The authors describe a case to highlight the importance of prompt endo-therapy when this sign is recognised as disturbing this clot can cause brisk bleeding. The white nipple sign is a term used to describe a fresh fibrin clot on a varix that has bled recently. The authors describe a case to highlight the importance of prompt endo-therapy when this sign is recognised as disturbing this clot can cause brisk bleeding.
1209) Xith Nerve Paralysis
Seventh cranial nerve paralysis: Known as Bell’s palsy, this is paralysis of the facial nerve, the nerve that supplies the facial muscles on one side of the face. The cause of Bell’s palsy is not known, but it is thought to be related to a virus (or to various viruses). 7th Nerve Palsy causes sudden weakness or paralysis of the muscles on one side of the face. Facial nerve paralysis is characterised by facial weakness, usually only in one side of the face, with other symptoms possibly including loss of taste, hyperacusis and decreased salivation and tear secretion. Other signs may be linked to the cause of the paralysis, such as vesicles in the ear, which may occur if the facial palsy is due to shingles. Symptoms may develop over several hours. Acute facial pain radiating from the ear may precede the onset of other symptoms
1210) X-Ray Hepatobiliary Abnormal
Hepatobiliary abnormality: “CF-related hepatobiliary abnormality” was defined as the presence of abnormal liver chemistries on one or more occasion and “CF-related hepatobiliary disease” was defined as biochemical, physical examination, or ultrasonographic abnormalities on at least 2 consecutive examinations spanning a 1-year period. Symptoms of possible biliary disease: Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes); Abdominal pain, especially in the upper right side of the abdomen under the rib cage; Nausea or vomiting; Loss of appetite, which may result in weight loss; Fatigue; Fever or chills; Itching; Light brown urine.
1211) Young’s Syndrome
Also known as azoospermia sinopulmonary infections, sinusitis-infertility syndrome and Barry-Perkins-Young syndrome, is a rare condition that encompasses a combination of syndromes such as bronchiectasis, rhinosinusitis and reduced male fertility. Young syndrome is a condition characterized by male infertility, damaged airways in the lungs (bronchiectasis), and inflammation of the sinuses (sinusitis).
1212) Zika Virus Associated Guillain Barre Syndrome
Several countries that have experienced Zika outbreaks recently have reported increases in people who have Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Current CDC research suggests that GBS is strongly associated with Zika; however, only a small proportion of people with recent Zika virus infection get GBS. Since Zika virus infects neurons, which contain membrane gangliosides, antigen presentation of these infected cells may trigger the observed autoimmune anti-ganglioside antibodies suggesting direct infection-induced autoantibodies as a cause leading to GBS development.